Care Variations and Outcomes for Children Hospitalized With Bacterial Tracheostomy-Associated Respiratory Infections
OBJECTIVES: Identify hospital-level care variations and association with length of stay (LOS) and hospital revisit in children with tracheostomies hospitalized for bacterial respiratory tract infections (bRTIs).
METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study that used the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients with tracheostomies aged ≤18 years with a primary diagnosis of bRTI (eg, tracheitis) or a primary diagnosis of a bRTI symptom (eg, cough) and a secondary diagnosis of bRTI. Primary outcomes were LOS and 30-day all-cause revisit rates. Secondary outcomes included hospital-level diagnostic testing and anti-Pseudomonas antibiotic use. We used mixed-effects negative binomial (for LOS) and logistic (for revisit) regression to explore the relationship between hospital-level diagnostic test utilization and the outcomes.
RESULTS: Data representing 4137 unique patients with a median age of 3 years (interquartile range: 1–9 years) were included. Median LOS was 4 days (interquartile range: 3–8 days), and the 30-day revisit rate was 24.9%. Use of diagnostic testing and empirical anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics varied significantly among hospitals (all P values <.001). After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, compared with low test utilization hospitals, there were no differences in 30-day all-cause revisit rates in moderate (adjusted odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93–1.52) or high (adjusted odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.82–1.39) utilization hospitals. LOS in hospitals with moderate (% difference: −0.8%; 95% CI: −14.4–14.9%) or high (% difference: 13.9%; 95% CI: −0.7–30.6%) test utilization was not significantly longer.
CONCLUSIONS: Given that care variations were not associated with outcomes, future research should focus on standardizing diagnosis and treatment of bRTIs and readmission prevention in this population.
- Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics