TABLE 1

Baseline and Intraoperative Characteristics of Patients in Each Group

CharacteristicPreimplementation (2003–September 2005) (n = 87)Partial Implementation (September 2005–June 2006) (n = 40)Full Implementation (July 2006–March 2008) (n = 80)
Demographic
 Gender, female43 (49)18 (45)42 (53)
 Age, y13.6 ± 3.713.2 ± 3.713.7 ± 3.4
Preoperative medical status
 Underlying disease
  Cerebral palsy51 (59)24 (60)53 (66)
  Neuropathy5 (5.7)3 (7.5)2 (2.5)
  Myopathy9 (10)2 (5.0)7 (8.8)
  Metabolic disorder1 (1.1)1 (2.5)0
  Skeletal dysplasia3 (3.4)1 (2.5)2 (2.5)
  Spina bifida1 (1.1)01 (1.3)
  Genetic disorder10 (11)6 (15)10 (13)
  Other7 (8.0)3 (7.5)7 (8.8)
 BMI, mean*17.6 ± 4.517.4 ± 4.718.4 ± 5.5
 Absolute largest curve72.5 ± 2369.9 ± 2066.0 ± 22
 No. of preoperative medications3 (0–12)2 (0–7)3.5 (0–11)
 Institutionalized9 (10)5 (12.5)5 (6.3)
 Nonverbal37 (43)22 (55)46 (58)
 Nonambulatory54 (62)25 (63)59 (74)
 Seizure disorder43 (49)20 (50)38 (48)
 Ventriculoperitoneal shunt3 (3.4)4 (10)10 (13)
 Asthma38 (44)16 (40)33 (41)
 History of hospitalized pneumonia29 (33)11 (28)29 (36)
 Daily home oxygen requirement7 (8.0)5 (12.5)5 (6.3)
 Tracheostomy6 (6.9)3 (7.5)8 (10)
 Home mechanical ventilation (not BiPAP)5 (5.7)3 (7.5)5 (6.3)
 Full oral feeder54 (62)25 (63)50 (63)
Operative data
 Surgery type
  Posterior fusion72 (83)37 (93)70 (88)
  Anterior/posterior fusion12 (14)2 (5.0)7 (8.8)
  Growing rod3 (3.4)1 (2.5)3 (3.8)
 Anesthesia time, min**425 (295–652)486 (335–653)480 (320–760)
 Surgery time, min***298 (191–520)354 (239–565)390 (209–667)
 Estimated blood loss, mL1685 (300–7026)2544 (700–5000)2626 (400–6450)
 Red blood cells transfused, mL922 (0–2618)1272 (564–2257)1102 (0–2902)
 Fresh frozen plasma transfused, mL282 (0–1202)540 (0–1164)386 (0–1536)
 Cell saver transfused, mL250 (0–1375)250 (0–1000)375 (0–1750)
 Platelets transfused, mL0 (0–407)0 (0–353)0 (0–413)
  • Data are presented as n (%), median ± SD, or median (IQR). P values among all groups were >.05 except for those noted. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare medians among the 3 groups.

  • * P value for 3 groups = .05.

  • ** P value for 3 groups = .01.

  • *** P value for 3 groups = .001.