TABLE 1

Cohort Demographics and Coded Diagnoses at the Time of First VFSS

Patients, n (%)Regression Models, RR (95% CI)
Normal VFSS (N = 298)Intermediate VFSS (N = 79)OPA VFSS (N = 199)Intermediate Versus Normal VFSSOPA Versus Normal VFSS
Age at time of first VFSS
 <3 months149 (50)40 (51)123 (62)RefRef
 3–6 months66 (22)15 (19)37 (19)0.9 (0.51–1.48)0.8 (0.59–1.06)
 >6 months83 (28)24 (30)39 (20)1.1 (0.67–1.65)0.7 (0.54–0.95)*
Male sex182 (61)47 (59)108 (54)0.9 (0.63–1.41)0.8 (0.68-1.04)
White race215 (82)60 (90)146 (87)1.7 (0.81–3.48)1.3 (0.88–1.83)
Inpatient169 (57)42 (53)157 (79)0.9 (0.60–1.31)1.9 (1.44–2.54)*
Medicaid138 (46)30 (38)78 (39)0.8 (0.50–1.14)0.8 (0.67–1.04)
Major diagnostic categories for primary diagnosis of index VFSS (most common ICD-9)
 Other nutritional, endocrine, and metabolic disorders (feeding problem)61 (20)20 (25)27 (14)1.2 (0.79–1.92)0.7 (0.52–1.01)
 Cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies (coarctation of aorta)39 (13)14 (18)50 (25)1.3 (0.80–2.16)1.5 (1.22–1.91)*
 Dysphagia (dysphagia nos)36 (12)14 (18)20 (10)1.4 (0.86–2.30)0.9 (0.60–1.27)
 Other perinatal conditions (feeding problem newborn)38 (13)5 (6)22 (11)0.5 (0.22–1.22)0.9 (0.63–1.28)
 Other congenital anomalies (laryngotracheal anomaly nec)13 (4)1 (1)22 (11)0.3 (0.05–2.22)1.6 (1.23–2.16)*
 Short gestation, low birth weight, and fetal growth retardation (35–36 weeks’ gestation)12 (4)3 (4)20 (10)1.0 (0.34–2.67)1.6 (1.21–2.16)*
Comorbid conditions
 No comorbid condition (n = 133)75 (25)23 (29)35 (18)RefRef
 Cardiovascular (n = 158)66 (22)23 (29)69 (35)1.48 (0.85–2.58)1.99 (1.42–2.80)*
 Other congenital or genetic (n = 96)49 (16)13 (16)34 (17)1.65 (0.90–3.01)1.37 (0.81–2.30)
 Premature and neonatal (n = 81)40 (13)10 (13)31 (16)1.53 (0.51–4.55)1.68 (0.85–3.29)
 Neurologic and neuromuscular (n = 77)34 (11)11 (14)32 (16)1.15 (0.50–2.68)1.11 (0.62–2.00)
 Respiratory (n = 70)27 (9)5 (6)38 (19)0.76 (0.24–2.36)1.76 (1.13–2.76)*
 Gastrointestinal (n = 33)18 (6)6 (8)9 (5)0.32 (0.01–7.31)
 GERD (n = 244)123 (41)35 (44)86 (43)1.06 (0.65–1.72)1.01 (0.69-1.49)
 Moderate prematurity (n = 58)26 (9)11 (14)21 (11)1.38 (0.64–2.98)1.17 (0.62–2.19)
  • All analyses were performed by using univariable Poisson regression, with the exception of comorbid conditions. Comorbid condition RR values were obtained with multivariable Poisson regression, adjusting for every other comorbid condition individually. *P < .05. CI, confidence interval; nec, not elsewhere classified; nos, not otherwise specified; Ref, reference; RR, relative risk; —, too few observations to estimate an RR.