TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of 86 Mother–Infant Pairs

No. (%), Mean (95% CI)
Mothers
 Mean maternal age, y29.4 (28.3–30.3)
 Maternal opioid
  Methadone48 (55.8)
   Mean dose at delivery (mg/d)100.1 (89.2–111.1)
  Buprenorphine38 (44.2)
   Mean dose at delivery (mg/d)14.5 (12.9–16.1)
 Maternal smoking in third trimester62 (72.1)
 Benzodiazepine use19 (22.1)
 SSRI use10 (11.6)
 Illicit drug use in third trimester28 (32.6)
  Amphetamine1 (3.5)
  Benzodiazepine3 (10.7)
  Cocaine5 (17.8)
  Heroin11 (39.2)
  Oxycodone/acetaminophen2 (7.1)
  Polysubstance usea6 (21.4)
Infants
 Gestational age38.9 (38.5–39.5)
 Male45 (53.2)
 Breastfed41 (47.7)
 DCF custody20 (23.3)
 Clinical trial participation23 (27.1)
 LOS, d18.9 ± 7.7 (17.3–20.5)
 Days of opioid therapy15.1 ± 6.5 (13.7–16.5)
 Total morphine equivalents, mg15.9 ± 10.0 (13.7–17.9)
 Secondary agent30 (34.9)
  • SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

  • a Heroin + cocaine, n = 3; heroin + Percocet, n = 1; benzodiazepine + Percocet, n = 1; heroin + benzodiazepine, n = 1.