TABLE 1

Summary of Study Characteristics

StudyaStudy Design and AimSample SizePopulationType of EV TestPrevalence of EVOutcomes
Stellrecht et al7Retrospective cohort; assess the clinical impact of EV PCR testingN = 1056Pediatric and adult patients with CSF EV PCRCSF EV real-time PCR20% (n = 20/100) in infants <1 mo oldNot clearly defined; LOS
Dewan et al8Retrospective cohort; evaluate the impact of EV testing on LOSN =1231Febrile infants <56 d oldCSF EV PCR25% (n = 308/1231)LOS
Ramers et al9Retrospective cohort; to determine the impact of EV-PCR testing on diagnosis and clinical management of suspected aseptic meningitis casesN = 276Pediatric patients 0–16 y old with EV PCR sentCSF EV PCR49% (n = 137/276)LOS, time from PCR result to discharge, intravenous antibiotic use, and use of ancillary tests. CSF pleocytosis also reported
Nigrovic et al10Cost minimization analysis using a decision tree; assess whether empirical EV PCR testing as compared with usual practice would lead to cost savings and identify the prevalence of EV needed to result in cost savingsN = 126Infants 28 d to 12 mo old with fever and CSF pleocytosisCSF EV PCRNA; prevalence was varied within the decision tree to assess which prevalence led to cost savingsTotal cost for usual care group and total cost for empirical EV testing group. Cost was defined using a cost-to-charge ratio of 0.65 and included hospital bed, nursing services, physician fee, and antibiotic.
Byington et al11Prospective cohort epidemiologic study; describe the epidemiology of EV infection through PCR testing of infants <90 d of age with and without feverN = 345Infants <90 d old with and without feverBlood, urine, CSF, throat EV PCRs26% (n = 89/345)Characteristics of infants with and without EV infection
Yun et al12Retrospective cross-sectional; describe characteristics of EV meningitis in absence of pleocytosisN = 390Children with +CSF EV PCRCSF EV PCRNA; only patients with EV includedCSF pleocytosis
Seiden et al13Retrospective cross-sectional; to identify factors associated with CSF pleocytosisN = 154Infants <90 d old with +CSF EV PCRCSF EV PCRNA; only patients with EV includedCSF pleocytosis
Mulford et al14Cross-sectional study of diagnostic test; to determine if pleocytosis and/or elevated protein levels were predictive of positive EV PCR.N = 728Pediatric and adult patientsCSF EV PCR38.1% (n = 277/728); reference standard was CSF EV PCRTest properties for pleocytosis and CSF protein to diagnose EV infection
  • EV, enterovirus. NA, not applicable.

  • a Studies are listed by order of citation in the text.