TABLE 1

Characteristics of Children Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis by Use of HTS from 2008 to 2014

CharacteristicsAll (N = 2709)No HTS (N = 2468)HTS Use (N = 241)P
n%n%n%
Enrollment season<.001
 2008–20098393182133187
 2009–201085432796325824
 2011–2012148510844017
 2012–2013658245572310142
 2013–2014210818682410
Site region<.001
 Northeast51919439188033
 Midwest3861437515115
 South11824410364214661
 West622236182542
Age at enrollment (mo), median (IQR)27093.7 (1.8–7.3)24683.7 (1.7–7.4)2413.4 (1.8–6.0).18
Sex.62
 Male16236014756014861
 Female108640993409339
Race and/or ethnicity.04
 Non-Hispanic white1022389153710744
 Non-Hispanic black or African American62123582243916
 Hispanic96136875368636
 Other99490494
Insurance<.001
 Private890337793211146
 Public17126415866512652
 None88384342
Weight (kg), median (IQR)26946.2 (4.7–8.2)24536.3 (4.7–8.2)2416.1 (4.7–7.9).54
Parental history of asthma86632780328636.20
Prenatal smoke exposure40115371153013.28
Premature birth (≤37 wk)76728703296427.50
ICU or special care at birth60923551225824.54
Postnatal smoke exposure (in same room)24992329177.22
Ever attended daycare56121500206125.07
Previous overnight hospitalization51419469194519.90
History of breathing problems59322544224920.54
Breathing problem began <1 d before ED visit13051135177.09
Child discomfort in 24 h before ED visit.07
 None/mild49818464193414
 Moderate1164431065439941
 Severe1042399353810745
Took antibiotics for illness before ED visit46417422174218.89
Used inhaled bronchodilator for breathing problem before ED visit1086409593912753<.001
Used corticosteroids for breathing problem before ED visit34913313133615.32
Virology
 No. of infections detected.12
  01285123552
  117826616216616167
  ≥279929724297531
 RSV20427518417520183.002
 Rhinovirus66024606255422.46
ED visit
 Initial heart rate (beats per minute), median (IQR)2678162 (148–176)2441162 (148–176)237164 (154–177).06
 Initial respiratory rate per minute, median (IQR)267548 (40–60)243648 (40–60)23952 (40–62)<.001
 Initial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry.66
  <90%29011261112912
  90%–93.9%42416384164017
  ≥94%19377317717316671
 Initial retractions.001
  None54720497205021
  Mild1181441091449037
  Moderate/severe81930723299640
  Not documented/unknown1626157652
 Presence of apnea1746165794.07
 Presence of wheezing16936415546513959.08
 Inhaled bronchodilator use16906315316315966.26
 Systemic corticosteroid use38714362152510.06
 Systemic antibiotic use60222556234619.19
Inpatient
 ICU admission43616362157431<.001
 Continuous positive airway pressure and/or intubated165613453113<.001
 Presence of apnea11641054115.85
 Inhaled bronchodilator on first admission day990378813610945.007
 Systemic corticosteroid use43416398163615.58
 Systemic antibiotic use30230249295332.46
 Hospital LOS, d, median (IQR)27092 (1–4)24682 (1–4)2413 (2–5)<.001