TABLE 1

Characteristics of the Infant and Their Mothers

Baseline (N = 50)
Characteristics of the Infants
 Girls, n (%)28 (56)
 Race, n (%)a
  White45 (92)
  African American3 (6)
  Hispanic1 (2)
 Birth weight, kgb3.1 ± 0.5
 Apgar score at 5 minb8.9 ± 0.3
 Head circumference, cmb32.9 ± 1.6
 Breastfed, n (%)c18 (36)
 Maximum weight loss from birth weight, %b8.7 ± 2.6
 Weight loss from birth weight at discharge, %b7.2 ± 3.3
 Length of stay, db5.9 ± 2.1
Characteristics of the mothers
 Mother’s age, yb28.4 ± 5.0
 Gestational age, wkb38.8 ± 1.5
 Gravidab3.1 ± 2.2
 Cesarean delivery, n (%)11 (22)
 Cigarette smoking, n (%)22 (44)
 Alcohol, n (%)3 (6)
 Public insurance, n (%)44 (88)
 Opioid used, n (%)
  Methadone40 (80)
  Buprenorphine7 (14)
  Otherd3 (6)
 Methadone dose, mg/db87.8 ± 37.2
 Polypharmacy, n (%)e21 (42)
  • a Data were unavailable for 2 patients.

  • b Mean ± SD.

  • c Breast milk >50% of intake at discharge.

  • d Oxycodone, Oxycontin, and/or Percocet.

  • e Opioid use in addition to mother’s use of cocaine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or benzodiazepines (determined either via history and/or urine testing of mother).