Trend in the national estimate of VRE infection in hospitalized children ages 0 to 18 years. Outer lines represent upper and lower 95% CIs. Significance was tested using the Cochrane–Armitage test of trend.
Data are presented as n (%) unless noted otherwise.
↵a Across all variable categories, there is a significant difference between patients with VRE and those without VRE (P < .0001).
↵b Missing values are the reason numbers across categories within variables do not sum to total number of discharges. Categorical percentages are based on the number of patients reported in the database.
Comorbid Clinical Diagnoses and Procedure Classifications (CCS codes) Most Highly Associated With VRE Infection
Diagnostic and procedural ICD-9-CM codes were grouped into clinically relevant categories using CCS. CCS codes have multiple levels, allowing for increasing or decreasing specificity in diagnoses and procedures. For this analysis, we used second-level CCS codes.
Estimated LOS and Costs Attributable to VRE Infection
Length of stay, d
14.3 d (14.1–14.6)
12.2 d (12.0–12.4)
Costs for years 2003–2012, $
51 020 (43 463–59 891)
42 787 (37 797–48 434)
Length of stay and costs values represent least-squared estimate means (CIs).