TABLE 3

Unadjusted and Adjusted Estimates of Hospitalization LOS, Receipt of Critical Care Services, and In-Hospital Mortality for CCC TAD Hospitalizations (n = 48 291) and Nontransfer Hospitalizations (n = 477 006)

TypeLOSReceipt of Critical Care ServicesaIn-Hospital Mortality
Risk Ratio (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
Unadjusted
 Transfer status
  Not transferredReferenceReferenceReference
  TAD2.0 (1.8–2.1)<.0013.7 (3.4–3.9)<.0014.5 (4.1–4.9)<.001
Adjusted
 Transfer status
  Not transferredReferenceReferenceReference
  TAD1.6 (1.5–1.7)<.0013.0 (2.7–3.2)<.0013.6 (3.2–3.9)<.001
 No. CCC diagnoses
  Single CCCReferenceReferenceReference
  ≥2 CCCs1.3 (1.3–1.4)<.0011.7 (1.7–1.8)<.0012.2 (2.0–2.4)<.001
 H-RISKb1.0 (1.0–1.0)<.0011.1 (1.1–1.1)<.0011.1 (1.1–1.1)<.001
 Age, y
  <1ReferenceReferenceReference
  1–50.7 (0.7–0.9)<.0010.6 (0.6–0.7)<.0010.8 (0.72–0.90)<.001
  5–100.7 (0.7–0.7)<.0010.4 (0.4–0.5)<.0010.7 (0.57–0.74)<.001
  10–150.8 (0.7–0.8)<.0010.3 (0.3–0.4)<.0010.8 (0.66–0.86)<.001
  >150.8 (0.8–0.8)<.0010.4 (0.4–0.4)<.0011.0 (0.9–1.1).613
 Sex
  MaleReferenceReferenceReference
  Female1.0 (1.0–1.0).8590.9 (0.8–0.9)<.0010.8 (0.7–0.9)<.001
 Median household income based on zip code of patient residence, $
  1–38 999ReferenceReferenceReference
  39 000–47 9991.0 (1.0–1.0).8541.0 (0.9–1.0).1330.9 (0.8–1.0).057
  48 000–62 9991.0 (1.0–1.0).2030.9 (0.9–1.0).0230.8 (0.7–0.9).001
  63 000+1.0 (1.0–1.0).1060.9 (0.9–1.0).0510.8 (0.7–0.9).001
 Primary expected payer
  PrivateReferenceReferenceReference
  Medicare1.0 (1.0–1.1).0751.0 (0.8–1.2).6210.7 (0.5–1.0).038
  Medicaid1.1 (1.1–1.1)<.0011.4 (1.3–1.4)<.0011.0 (0.9–1.1).820
  Self-pay1.0 (0.9–1.0).0291.4 (1.3–1.7)<.0011.8 (1.5–2.3)<.001
  No charge1.0 (0.9–1.1).7051.4 (0.9–2.1).1090.9 (0.4–1.8).702
  Other1.1 (1.0–1.1).0061.0 (0.9–1.2).6871.1 (0.9–1.3).258
 Race or ethnicity
  WhiteReferenceReferenceReference
  Black1.0 (1.0–1.1).1160.9 (0.9–1.0).0341.1 (1.0–1.2).138
  Hispanic1.0 (1.0–1.2).0210.9 (0.9–1.0).1001.3 (1.1–1.4)<.001
  Asian or Pacific Islander1.1 (1.1–1.2)<.0011.0 (0.9–1.1).7061.6 (1.3–1.8)<.001
  Native American1.0 (0.9–1.1).6351.0 (0.7–1.3).8221.4 (1.0–2.0).077
  Other1.1 (1.0–1.1)<.0011.0 (0.9–1.1).6711.3 (1.1–1.5).003
 Hospital bed sizec
  LargeReferenceReferenceReference
  Small0.9 (0.8–1.0).0100.9 (0.7–1.1).2040.9 (0.8–1.2).593
  Medium0.9 (0.8–0.9)<.0011.0 (0.9–1.1).7351.0 (0.8–1.1).593
 Hospital location and teaching status
  Urban teachingReferenceReferenceReference
  Rural0.8 (0.7–0.9)<.0010.7 (0.6–0.8)<.0010.7 (0.5–1.0).019
  Urban nonteaching0.9 (0.9–1.0).0511.0 (0.9–1.1).6651.1 (0.9–1.2).527
 Hospital designationd
  Not a children’s hospitalReferenceReferenceReference
  Children hospital1.2 (1.1–1.3)<.0011.0 (0.9–1.0).2390.8 (0.7–0.9)<.001
  • —, not applicable.

  • a Based on ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes consistent with ICU admission.

  • b The H-RISK was introduced by Richardson et al.20

  • c The bed size definition varies according to region on the basis of the American Hospital Association survey of hospitals.

  • d Based on information provided by the Children’s Hospital Association.