TABLE 3

Factors Associated With Refusal of Intramuscular Vitamin K

Study, CountryStudy Design (No. Participants)Risk Factors Associated With Refusal of Intramuscular Vitamin KStatisticsa
Marcewicz et al,3 United StatesCross-sectional survey (N = 74)Refusal of erythromycin eye ointmentN = 50 (68%)
Refusal of hepatitis B vaccineN = 69 (93%)
Refusal of vitamin K injection, erythromycin eye ointmentN = 49 (66%)
Neonatal hepatitis B vaccine
Hamrick et al,4 United StatesCross-sectional survey (N = 54)White raceN = 42 (78%)
>30 y of ageN = 31 (57%)
Intention to exclusively breastfeedN = 54 (100%)
Refusal of hepatitis B vaccineN = 49 (90%)
Refusal of erythromycin eye ointmentN = 42 (77%)
Sahni et al,13 CanadaCohort study (N = 282 378)Planned home birthRR 4.9 (95% CI 3.8–6.4)
Deliveries in birthing centersRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.3–5.6)
Midwife-assisted deliveriesRR 8.4 (95% CI 6.5–11.0)
No childhood vaccines at 15 moRR 14.6 (95% CI 13.9–15.3)
Loyal et al,5 United StatesNested case-control study (N = 102 878)Exclusive breastfeedingaOR 3.4 (95% CI 2.1–5.5)
Infant’s non-Hispanic white race and/or ethnicityaOR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4)
Female sexaOR 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.3)
Increased gestational ageaOR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1–1.4)
Increased mother’s ageaOR 1.05 (95% CI 1.02–1.08)
Refusal of both ocular prophylaxis and hepatitis B vaccineaOR 88.7 (95% CI 50.4–151.9)
Bernhardt et al,14 New ZealandCohort study (N = 3575)NonimmunizationRR 14.1 (95% CI 7.8–25.9)
Incomplete immunization in childhoodRR 5.4 (95% CI 3.5–8.3)
Burke et al,15 New ZealandCohort study (N = 7089)Asian ethnicityOR 5.87 (95% CI 3.61–9.53)
Vaginal deliveryOR 2.85 (95% CI 1.83–4.43)
Increased gestational age (per week)OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.10–1.39)
Danziger at al,6 United StatesCohort study (N = 3758)Delivery by certified midwife compared with physicianOR 6.2 (95% CI 3.3–11.6)
  • aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; RR, risk ratio.