TABLE 1

Descriptive Statistics by Encounter (N = 4398)

Pre-ACA (30 mo), n = 1874Implementation (6 mo), n = 338Post-ACA (24 mo), n = 2186P
Age at first discharge, median (IQR), y15.0 (12.0–16.0)14.0 (13.0–16.0)15.0 (13.0–16.0).002a
Female sex, n (%)964 (51.4)187 (55.3)1194 (54.6).1
Race and/or ethnicity, n (%)b.02
 White1193 (63.7)190 (56.2)1316 (60.2)
 African American125 (6.7)31 (9.2)171 (7.8)
 Hispanic178 (9.5)33 (9.8)253 (11.6)
 Asian American82 (4.4)14 (4.1)75 (3.4)
 Other296 (15.8)70 (20.7)371 (17.0)
Language, n (%).3
 English1792 (95.6)320 (94.7)2094 (95.8)
 Spanish34 (1.8)6 (1.8)49 (2.2)
 Other48 (2.6)12 (3.6)43 (2.0)
Payer, n (%)<.001
 Medicaid625 (33.3)139 (41.1)932 (42.6)
 Private, contracted899 (48.0)141 (41.7)946 (43.3)
 Private, not contracted215 (11.5)46 (13.6)214 (9.8)
 Other135 (7.2)12 (3.6)94 (4.3)
Primary diagnosis, n (%)
 Depressive disorder814 (43.4)168 (49.7)1059 (48.4).003
 Disruptive disorder539 (28.8)78 (23.1)533 (24.4).003
 Other psychiatric diagnoses521 (27.8)92 (27.2)594 (27.2).90
Complexity, n (%)
 Medical comorbidityc937 (50.0)176 (52.1)1004 (45.9).01
 Discharged on antipsychoticd482 (25.7)77 (22.8)639 (29.2).007
Developmental diagnosis, n (%)
 Autism147 (7.8)48 (14.2)296 (13.5)<.001
 Developmental delay224 (12.0)54 (16.0)354 (16.2)<.001
 Intellectual disability53 (2.8)27 (8.0)101 (4.6)<.001
Eating disorder38 (2.0)8 (2.4)29 (1.3).14
  • IQR, interquartile range; —, not applicable.

  • a Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test (all other P values were calculated by using Pearson’s χ2 test).

  • b Mutually exclusive categories in which individuals reporting Hispanic ethnicity are classified as Hispanic and those reporting non-Hispanic ethnicity are classified by reported race.

  • c Medical comorbidity includes any nonpsychiatric diagnosis coded during the encounter.

  • d We used discharged on antipsychotics (not as needed) as a proxy for severity.