TABLE 1

Sample of Research Publications and Data Sets Used

Author TeamData Set UsedSelected Findings
Okoro et al49Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey32.6% of adults report firearms in or around their home; 1.69 million children and youth (<18 y) were living with loaded and unlocked household firearms
Kalesan et al50CDC WISQARS31 672 firearm-related deaths occurred in 2010; 3 state laws most strongly associated with reduced overall firearm mortality were universal background checks for firearm purchase (multivariable incidence rate ratio 0.39 [95% CI 0.23–0.67]; P = .001), ammunition background checks (multivariable incidence rate ratio 0.18 [95% CI 0.09–0.36]; P < .0001), and identification requirement for firearms (multivariable incidence rate ratio 0.16 [95% CI 0.09–0.29]; P < .0001)
Goyal et al38CDC WISQARS, Brady gun score21 241 children died of firearm-related injuries during the 5-y period; states with stricter gun laws had lower rates of firearm-related pediatric mortality (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.96 [95% CI 0.93–0.99])
Patel et al51Nationwide Emergency Department Sample111 839 ED visits for pediatric firearm-related injuries; rates of visits varied by region: lowest rate in the Northeast and highest rate in the South (40.0 [95% CI 34–45] and 70.8 [95% CI 63.7–76.9] per 100 000 ED visits, respectively); compared with the Northeast, odds of firearm-related ED visits were higher in the Midwest (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI 1.4–2.3), West (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI 2.0–3.2), and South (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI 1.5–2.4)
Fowler et al20National Vital Statistics System, National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, and National Violent Death Reporting SystemNearly 1300 children died, and 5790 were treated for gunshot wounds each year; rates of firearm homicide among children were higher in many Southern states and parts of the Midwest relative to other parts of the country; firearm suicides were more dispersed across the United States, with some of the highest rates occurring in Western states
Joudi et al52Kids’ Inpatient Database275 cases identified with a 7.5% mortality rate; incidence peaked at 1.0 per 100 000 admissions in 2006, which is significantly increased from a low 0.2 per 100 000 admissions in 1997 (P < .001)
Srinivasan et al53National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey198 969 visits (0.06%; 95% CI 120 727–277 211) were for firearm injuries; fatal firearm injuries accounted for 2% of these visits; 36% were intentionally inflicted; there were increased odds of firearm injuries to men (OR 10.2; 95% CI 5.1–20.5), black children and adolescents (0–19 y) (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.5–6.7), and adolescents 12–19 y old (all races) (OR 16.6; 95% CI 6.3–44.3) on multivariable analysis
  • aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; WISQARS, Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System.