TABLE 1

Participant Demographics Across Study Phases

CharacteristicFocus GroupsWeb SurveyGRASP Test
% (n)Mean (SD)Range% (n)Mean (SD)Range% (n)Mean (SD)Range
Provider type
 Inpatient30.7 (8)71.4 (5)66 (4)
 Outpatient42.3 (11)28.5 (2)33 (2)
 Inpatient and outpatient26.9 (7)
License
 Medical doctor53.8 (14)85.7 (6)55 (4)
 Nurse practitioner30.7 (8)14.2 (1)33 (2)
 Physician assistant3.8 (1)
 Registered nurse7.6 (2)
 Social worker3.8 (1)
Practice years
 All practice16.84 (11.81)3–3713.14 (10.47)2–2713 (7.96)8–25
 Pediatric practice17.26 (10.6)4–37
 Complex care practice12.56 (11.01)0–357.85 (8.17)1–236.83 (5.15)2–15
Months of past year caring for children with complex needs9.93 (3.99)0–12
Children per year cared for with pain behaviors of unknown origina23.61 (24.62)0–10015.42 (12.36)3–4015.83 (8.01)10–30
Difficulty faced evaluating pain in children with complex needs7.6 (1.22)5–107.8 (0.75)7–97.66 (0.18)7–9
  • —, not applicable.

  • a Defined as children presenting with pain behaviors with an absence of self or parent, guardian, or caregiver localization.