TABLE 1

Comparison of Patient Characteristics (Measured in 2017) and Outcomes (Measured in 2018) by Study Group

VariableC5 Participants (N = 70)Control Group (N = 56)P
Median (IQR) or n (%)Median (IQR) or n (%)
Patient characteristics assessed in 2017
 Age, y7 (3–12)7 (4–13).545
Sex.935
 Male42 (60)34 (61)
 Female28 (40)22 (37)
Race and/or ethnicity.270
 Non-Hispanic African American41 (59)25 (45)
 Non-Hispanic white21 (30)24 (43)
 Other race and/or ethnicity8 (11)7 (13)
Major comorbiditiesa
 Cerebral palsy29 (41)12 (21).017
 Seizure disorder21 (30)14 (25).534
 Congenital heart disease8 (11)4 (7).546
 Hydrocephalus5 (7)7 (13).309
 Chronic lung disease7 (10)1 (2).075
 Anoxic brain injury6 (9)4 (7)>.999
 Cancer1 (1)8 (14).010
Surgical historya
 Tracheostomy37 (53)18 (32).020
 Gastrostomy tube48 (69)30 (54).085
 Nissen procedure16 (23)8 (14).223
 Ventriculoperitoneal shunt8 (11)7 (13).854
Insurance coverage.965
 Private8 (11)7 (13)
 Medicaid and/or Medicare59 (84)47 (84)
 Other or none3 (4)2 (4)
CCC categoriesa,b
 Technology dependent31 (55)
 Neuromuscular26 (46)
 Gastrointestinal15 (27)
 Renal11 (20)
 Respiratory6 (11)
 Malignancy6 (11)
 Cardiovascular3 (5)
 Hematologic or immunocompromised2 (4)
 Metabolic1 (2)
No. CCC present
 145 (80)
 28 (14)
 33 (5)
Health care use in 2017
 Hospitalizations0 (0–1)2 (1–4)<.001
 ED visits0 (0–1)0 (0–1).076
 Hospitalizations and ED visits1 (0–2)2 (1–5)<.001
Patient outcomes assessed in 2018
 Health care use in 2018
 Hospitalizations0 (0–0)0 (0–1).025
 ED visits0 (0–0)0 (0–1).254
 Hospitalizations and ED visits0 (0–1)1 (0–3).033
 Total cost of care, Thousands, $c0.7 (0–3.8)3.2 (0–27.9).024
  • —, not applicable.

  • a Categories are not mutually exclusive.

  • b Data available only for control group.

  • c Including all hospital system encounters not limited to hospitalizations and ED visits.