TABLE 1

Study Characteristics

Study, yCountryDesignSettingPopulationNEarly Unplanned Readmissions, n (%)Age, y
Bernard et al,15 2013United StatesRetrospective cohortTertiary care pediatric academic hospitalPatients with ≥1 PICU admission during a single hospitalization; admissions to the cardiac intensive care team were excluded21270 (33.01)NR
Czaja et al,12 2013United StatesRetrospective cohort73 PICUs in VPS (2005–2008); most were academic centers with an accredited pediatric residency programAll patients admitted to the PICU; children who died on their first admission or who were directly discharged from the ICU were excluded37981499 (39.47)NR
De Kroon et al,16 2013NetherlandsCase-controlChildren’s hospitalAll patients admitted to the PICU33681024 (NA)NR
Edwards et al,13 2013United StatesRetrospective cohort90 North American PICUs in VPS (2009–2011)All patients admitted to the PICU95 0281161 (1.22)0–18
Kaur et al,14 2018United StatesCase-controlAcademic children’s hospital with a 16-bed mixed medical-surgical unitAll patients (0–17 y) who required unscheduled readmission to the PICU within 48 h were included. Controls were selected randomly from all patients who did not require readmission.25686 (NA)3.75 (0.8–10.1)a
Khan et al,17 2014PakistanRetrospective cohortPICU and step-down unit at a university hospitalPediatric patients <15 y102224 (2.34)4.07 (0–8.49)b,c
Kotsakis et al,18 2016CanadaCase-controlAcademic pediatric hospital with all subspecialty services availablePatients (index discharge) who survived to PICU discharge and were discharged to hospital wards6370135 (NA)5.27 (0.96–12.87)a
Linton et al,19 2009AustraliaCase-controlChildren’s hospital with the largest PICU in the country; access to all medical and surgical pediatric subspecialtiesChildren discharged from ICU375114 (NA)3.65 (0–19)c
Mandell et al,20 2015United StatesCase-controlTertiary care, academic, freestanding children’s hospitalAll patients ≤18 from the PICU to the pediatric ward; patients who were discharged directly from the PICU to home or transferred to another PICU were excluded18938 (NA)7.27 (1.4–14.3)a
Odetola et al,21 2007United StatesCase-control (retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data)16-bed medical-surgical PICU and a 15-bed pediatric cardiac ICU at a tertiary care university children’s hospitalData collected prospectively within the PRISM III data8885711 (NA)2.93 (0.46–10.68)a
Wagh et al,22 2013United KingdomCase-control (retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data)22-bed cardiac and general PICU with ∼1100 admissions per yearPICU episodes were evaluated; no further details provided9471330 (NA)NR
  • NA, not available; NR, not reported; PRISM, Pediatric Risk of Mortality; VPS, Virtual Pediatric ICU Performance Systems.

  • a Median (interquartile range).

  • b Information only available for the patients who were readmitted.

  • c Mean (range).