TABLE 1

Patient and Hospital Characteristics Stratified by Study Period

TotalControl (2019)Pandemic (2020)Risk Difference, % (95% CI)
n, total205 283135 14170 142
Age group, n (%)
 6 mo to 1 y15 423 (7.5)10 297 (7.6)5126 (7.3)−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1)
 1–5 y71 688 (34.9)49 622 (36.7)22 066 (31.5)−5.3 (−5.7 to −4.8)
 6–12 y59 997 (29.2)39 547 (29.3)20 450 (29.2)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.3)a
 13–18 y58 175 (28.3)35 675 (26.4)22 500 (32.1)5.7 (5.3 to 6.1)
Sex, n (%)
 Female97 101 (47.3)63 352 (46.9)33 749 (48.1)1.2 (0.8 to 1.7)
Race and ethnicity, n (%)
 Non-Hispanic white98 257 (47.9)63 876 (47.3)34 381 (49.0)1.8 (1.3 to 2.2)
 Non-Hispanic African American39 553 (19.3)26 882 (19.9)12 671 (18.1)−1.8 (−2.2 to −1.5)
 Hispanic42 313 (20.6)27 692 (20.5)14 621 (20.8)0.4 (0 to 0.7)a
 Other25 160 (12.3)16 691 (12.4)8469 (12.1)−0.3 (−0.6 to 0)a
Payer, n (%)
 Public110 977 (55.3)73 752 (55.7)37 225 (54.6)−1.5 (−2 to −1)
 Private81 535 (40.6)53 526 (40.4)28 009 (41.1)0.3 (−0.1 to 0.8)a
 Other8120 (4.0)5128 (3.9)2 992 (4.4)0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)
Zip code income percentage of poverty guideline, n (%)
 <150%45 206 (22.0)29 716 (22.0)15 490 (22.1)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)a
 150–199%61 979 (30.2)40 994 (30.3)20 985 (29.9)−0.4 (−0.8 to 0)a
 200–249%42 241 (20.6)27 758 (20.5)14 483 (20.6)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)a
 250%+50 812 (24.8)33 515 (24.8)17 297 (24.7)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.3)a
 Missing5045 (2.5)3158 (2.3)1887 (2.7)0.4 (0.2 to 0.5)
CCCs, n (%)
 None121 365 (59.1)81 902 (60.6)39 463 (56.3)−4.3 (−4.8 to −3.9)
 149 635 (24.2)31 602 (23.4)18 033 (25.7)2.3 (1.9 to 2.7)
 220 951 (10.2)13 209 (9.8)7742 (11.0)1.3 (1 to 1.5)
 3+13 332 (6.5)8428 (6.2)4904 (7.0)0.8 (0.5 to 1)
Distance traveled to seek care, n (%)
 <5 miles25 072 (12.2)17 127 (12.7)7945 (11.3)−1.3 (−1.6 to −1.1)
 5–10 miles37 464 (18.2)25 225 (18.7)12 239 (17.4)−1.2 (−1.6 to −0.9)
 10–20 miles48 994 (23.9)32 323 (23.9)16 671 (23.8)−0.2 (−0.5 to 0.2)a
 >20 miles93 018 (45.3)59 952 (44.4)33 066 (47.1)2.8 (2.3 to 3.2)
 Missing735 (0.4)514 (0.4)221 (0.3)−0.1 (−0.1 to 0)a
Admission source, n (%)
 Own ED114 976 (56.0)75 760 (56.1)39 216 (55.9)−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.3)a
 Inbound transfer27 224 (13.3)17 760 (13.2)9448 (13.5)0.3 (0 to 0.6)a
 Direct admission63 083 (30.7)41 605 (30.8)21 478 (30.6)−0.2 (−0.6 to 0.3)a
Operating room procedure, n (%)41 580 (20.3)25 694 (19.0)15 886 (22.6)3.6 (3.3 to 4)
ICU stay25 475 (12.4)16 267 (12.0)9208 (13.1)1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)
Hospital region, n (%)
 Midwest56 297 (27.4)38 509 (28.5)17 788 (25.4)−3.1 (−3.5 to −2.7)
 Northeast24 583 (12.0)16 621 (12.3)7962 (11.4)−0.9 (−1.2 to −0.7)
 South84 480 (41.2)55 039 (40.7)29 441 (42.0)1.2 (0.8 to 1.7)
 West39 923 (19.4)24 972 (18.5)14 951 (21.3)2.8 (2.5 to 3.2)
H-RISK, median (IQR)1.09 (0.72 to 1.84)1.03 (0.68 to 1.70)1.20 (0.73 to 2.01)
  • All P values < .001, except admission source (P = .13). —, not applicable.

  • a CI includes 0.