TABLE 2

Patient and Hospital Characteristics Stratified by Encounter Type and Then by Study Period

New Patient Admission EncountersEstablished Patient Admission Encounters
Control (2019)Pandemic (2020)Risk Difference, % (95% CI)Control (2019)Pandemic (2020)Risk Difference, % (95% CI)
n, total60 44832 56274 69337 580
Age group, n (%)
 6 mo to 1 y4 633 (7.7)2299 (7.1)−0.6 (−1 to −0.3)9913 (12.3)5253 (13.0)0.7 (0.3 to 1.1)
 1–5 y19 577 (32.4)9022 (27.7)−4.7 (−5.3 to −4.1)30 518 (38.0)13 066 (32.3)−6.1 (−6.7 to −5.5)
 6–12 y19 012 (31.5)10 282 (31.6)0.1 (−0.5 to 0.8)a20 879 (26.0)10 178 (25.2)−0.9 (−1.4 to −0.3)
 13–18 y17 226 (28.5)10 959 (33.7)5.2 (4.5 to 5.8)18 656 (23.2)11 554 (28.6)5.8 (5.2 to 6.3)
Sex, n (%)
 Female28 495 (47.1)15 507 (47.6)0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2)a34 857 (46.7)18 242 (48.5)1.9 (1.3 to 2.5)
Race and ethnicity, n (%)
Non-Hispanic
white
31 035 (51.3)17 058 (52.4)1 (0.4 to 1.7)32 841 (44.0)17 323 (46.1)2.1 (1.5 to 2.7)
Non-Hispanic African American9217 (15.2)4615 (14.2)−1.1 (−1.5 to −0.6)17 665 (23.7)8056 (21.4)−2.2 (−2.7 to −1.7)
 Hispanic11 499 (19.0)6275 (19.3)0.2 (−.03 to 0.8)a16 193 (21.7)8346 (22.2)0.5 (0 to 1)a
 Other8697 (14.4)4614 (14.2)−0.2 (−0.7 to 0.3)a7994 (10.7)3855 (10.3)−0.4 (−0.8 to −0.1)
Payer, n (%)
 Public28 693 (48.5)15 044 (47.6)−1.3 (−1.9 to −0.6)45 059 (61.5)22 181 (60.6)−1.3 (−1.9 to −0.7)
 Private27 428 (46.4)14 622 (46.3)−0.5 (−1.1 to 0.2)a26 098 (35.6)13 387 (36.6)0.7 (0.1 to 1.3)
 Other3005 (5.1)1936 (6.1)1 (0.7 to 1.3)2123 (2.9)1056 (2.9)0 (−0.2 to 0.2)a
Zip code income percentage of poverty guideline, n (%)
 <150%11 986 (19.8)6568 (20.2)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.9)a17 730 (23.7)8922 (23.7)0 (−0.5 to 0.5)a
 150–199%17 768 (29.4)9510 (29.2)−0.2 (−0.8 to 0.4)a23 226 (31.1)11 475 (30.5)−0.6 (−1.1 to 0)a
 200–249%12 457 (20.6)6692 (20.6)−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.5)a15 301 (20.5)7791 (20.7)0.2 (−0.3 to 0.7)a
 250%+16 573 (27.4)8781 (27.0)−0.4 (−1 to 0.1)a16 942 (22.7)8516 (22.7)0 (−0.5 to 0.5)a
 Missing1664 (2.8)1011 (3.1)0.4 (0.1 to 0.6)1494 (2.0)876 (2.3)0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
CCCs, n (%)
 None46 322 (76.6)24 072 (73.9)−2.7 (−3.3 to −2.1)35 580 (47.6)15 391 (41.0)−6.7 (−7.3 to −6.1)
 110 418 (17.2)6070 (18.6)1.4 (0.9 to 1.9)21 184 (28.4)11 963 (31.8)3.5 (2.9 to 4)
 22667 (4.4)1729 (5.3)0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)10 542 (14.1)6013 (16.0)1.9 (1.4 to 2.3)
 3+1041 (1.7)691 (2.1)0.4 (0.2 to 0.6)7387 (9.9)4213 (11.2)1.3 (0.9 to 1.7)
Distance traveled to seek care, n (%)
 <5 miles5097 (8.4)2547 (7.8)−0.6 (−1 to −0.2)12 030 (16.1)5398 (14.4)−1.7 (−2.2 to −1.3)
 5–10 miles9268 (15.3)4798 (14.7)−0.6 (−1.1 to −0.1)15 957 (21.4)7441 (19.8)−1.6 (−2.1 to −1.1)
 10–20 miles14 648 (24.2)7793 (23.9)−0.3 (−0.9 to 0.3)a17 675 (23.7)8878 (23.6)0 (−0.6 to 0.5)a
 >20 miles31 145 (51.5)17 319 (53.2)1.7 (1 to 2.3)28 807 (38.6)15 747 (41.9)3.3 (2.7 to 3.9)
 Missing290 (0.5)105 (0.3)−0.2 (−0.2 to −0.1)224 (0.3)116 (0.3)0 (−0.1 to 0.1)a
Admission source, n (%)
 Own ED31 699 (52.4)18 138 (55.7)3.3 (2.6 to 3.9)44 061 (59.0)21 078 (56.1)−2.9 (−3.5 to −2.3)
 Inbound transfer12 083 (20.0)6698 (20.6)0.6 (0 to 1.1a5693 (7.6)2750 (7.3)−0.3 (−0.6 to 0)a
 Direct admission16 666 (27.6)7726 (23.7)−3.8 (−4.4 to −3.3)24 939 (33.4)13 752 (36.6)3.2 (2.6 to 3.8)
Operating room procedure, n (%)13 889 (23.0)8996 (27.6)4.6 (4 to 5.2)11 805 (15.8)6890 (18.3)2.5 (2.1 to 3)
ICU stay, n (%)6739 (11.1)4091 (12.6)1.4 (1 to 1.9)9528 (12.8)5117 (13.6)0.9 (0.4 to 1.3)
Hospital region, n (%)
 Midwest15 872 (26.3)7380 (22.7)−3.6 (−4.2 to −3)22 637 (30.3)10 408 (27.7)−2.6 (−3.2 to −2.1)
 Northeast6993 (11.6)3596 (11.0)−0.5 (−1 to −0.1)9628 (12.9)4366 (11.6)−1.3 (−1.7 to −0.9)
 South26 161 (43.3)14 434 (44.3)1 (0.4 to 1.7)28 878 (38.7)15 007 (39.9)1.3 (0.7 to 1.9)
 West11 422 (18.9)7152 (22.0)3.1 (2.5 to 3.6)13 550 (18.1)7799 (20.8)2.6 (2.1 to 3.1)
H-RISK, median (IQR)0.91 (0.63 to 1.57)1.02 (0.68 to 1.84)1.14 (0.72 to 1.97)1.24 (0.77 to 2.28)
  • All P values < .001, except new patient female sex (P = .353), new patient zip code income (P = .016), established patient payer (P = .009), and established patient zip code income (P = .003). —, not applicable.

  • a CI includes 0.