TABLE 4

Strategies Used to Manage Most Painful Procedures/Conditions and Their Helpfulness as Reported by Patients and Parents (N = 135)

StrategyHow Helpful Was the Strategy?aCause of Worst Pain, n (%)
M (SD)Needle Pokes (n = 54)Procedure (n = 11)Surgery (n = 14)Acute Illness/Infection; Treatment of Known Disease; Trauma/Injury/Other Medical (n = 56)
Patient participation9.2 (1.6)3 (6)0 (0)1 (7)2 (4)
Caregiver participation8.2 (2.7)18 (33)4 (36)6 (43)18 (32)
Infant comfort (swaddling, rocking, etc.)8.0 (2.3)6 (11)4 (36)6 (43)6 (11)
Distraction7.8 (2.2)13 (24)3 (27)1(7)17 (30)
Positioning7.7 (2.4)17 (32)4 (36)1 (7)12 (21)
Pain medicine7.5 (2.6)11 (20)5 (46)14 (100)45 (80)
Otherb7.5 (3.0)1 (2)0 (0)2 (14)6 (11)
Education/information/preparation7.2 (2.4)14 (26)2 (18)2 (14)5 (9)
Sucrose/pacifier7.2 (2.5)14 (26)4 (36)1 (7)6 (11)
Integrative medicine strategies (eg, aromatherapy, guided imagery)6.2 (3.4)0 (0)0 (0)1 (7)9 (16)
Warm/cold pack4.6 (3.4)7 (13)0 (0)2 (14)10 (18)
Epidural/blocksN/A0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
  • a 0 = not helpful at all; 10 = very helpful. A small number of children/parents did not rate the helpfulness of strategies that they identified.

  • b Examples of “other” strategies were laxatives, diet change, feeding food or fluids, playing with stuffed animal, dark/quiet room, and using drainage tube.