TABLE 5

Scheduled and Unscheduled Pharmacologic Pain Management Interventions for Children Who Reported Experiencing Pain in the Past 24 Hours

All Children (N = 178)Children Who Reported Pain (n = 135)
n (%)n (%)
“Simple” analgesia
 Acetaminophen48 (27.0)45 (33.3)
 Ibuprofen16 (9.0)15 (11.1)
 Ketorolac7 (3.9)7 (5.2)
 Celecoxib1 (0.6)1 (0.7)
“Weak” opioids
 Tramadol9 (5.1)9 (6.7)
 Codeine-acetaminophen0 (0)0 (0)
“Strong” opioids
 Morphine22 (12.4)21 (15.6)
 Fentanyl4 (2.2)4 (3.0)
 Hydromorphone3 (1.7)3 (2.2)
 Methadone2 (1.1)1 (0.7)
 Oxycodone2 (1.1)2 (1.5)
 Hydrocodone-acetaminophen1 (0.6)1 (0.7)
Adjuvant analgesia
 Amitriptyline4 (2.2)4 (3.0)
 Gabapentin0 (0)0 (0)
 Low-dose ketamine2 (1.1)2 (1.5)
 Dexmedetomidine0 (0)0 (0)
 Clonidine1 (0.6)1 (0.7)
 Topical lidocaine patch1 (0.6)1 (0.7)