TABLE 2

Costs, Vials Used, and LOS According to Patient Hospitalization Type

Billing StatusED OnlyInpatientObservationAll
Antivenom ReceivedNo AntivenomAntivenom ReceivedNo AntivenomAntivenom ReceivedNo Antivenom
No. of cases4241683128241002755
Mean ± SD costs, $5339 ± 3799224 ± 19420 503 ± 13 2084224 ± 388317 665 ± 13 8561683 ± 12441218 ± 4721
Median costs (IQR), $4793 (2905– 7773)168 (113–285)16 168 (10 922–26 491)2779 (1674–5209)13 512 (8572–23 066)1426 (1003–2013)187 (116–348)
Mean ± SD pharmacy costs, $4748 ± 397710 ± 2816 300 ± 12 210402 ± 57915 118 ± 12 413108 ± 110656 ± 3912
Median pharmacy costs (IQR), $4364 (2157–7340)1 (0–8)13 418 (8830–21 131)191 (103–460)12 011 (7125–21 170)76 (22–153)2 (0–16)
Mean pharmacy costs as % total mean costs88.9%4.4%79.5%9.5%85.6%6.4%53.8%
Mean (median) vials of antivenom received2.8 (2); range 1–4All: 7.3 (17); range 1–287.4 (22); range: 1–427.2 (16.5); range: 1–42
Non-ICU: 6.3 (18.5); range: 1–22
ICU: 8.4 (12); range: 1–28
Mean ± SD LOS, d1.0 ± 0.01.0 ± 0.02.2 ± 1.42.1 ± 1.71.1 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.21.1± 0.5
LOS, median (IQR), d1.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)2.0 (1.0–3.0)1.0 (1.0–3.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)
  • –, not applicable; IQR, interquartile range. All costs based on ratio of costs to charges and adjusted for region with the CMS wage index.14