TABLE 3

The Perfect Storm: Predominant Characteristics in the Sample of Pediatric Somatoform Disorders

Primary Characteristics (≥50% of Sample)
Demographic
 13–18 y (mean age = 14.4)
 Female
 White
 Middle- to upper-middle-class community
Physical and medical
 Pain symptoms
 ≥1 comorbid medical diagnoses
 ≥2 symptoms, often overlapping with medical diagnosis
Psychiatric, temperamental, coping
 Pain disorder
 Comorbid nonsomatoform psychiatric diagnoses
 Preexisting psychiatric diagnoses
 Previous psychiatric or psychological care
 Referred to outpatient psychotherapy
 Anxious or sensitive temperament
 Internalizing or avoidant coping
 “Good” child
Family
 Family history of mental illness
 Family conflict
Academic and social
 High academic demands (self, parents, school imposed)
 School absences