TABLE 1

Profile of Patient-Level Characteristics for Pediatric Hospitalizations for Transfers and Nontransfers for 0- to 20-Year-Olds Nationally, 2012

Patient CharacteristicsTransferred (N = 263 367)aNot Transferred (N = 5 688 568)aProportion Transferred, %Pb
n%n%
Age group, y<.001
 0–1111 275(42.4)4 212  285(74.1)2.6
 2–533 205(12.6)337 045(5.9)9.0
 6–1132 767(12.5)315 417(5.6)9.4
 12–1867 505(25.7)576 398(10.2)10.5
 19–2017 709(6.7)240 448(4.2)6.8
Gender<.001
 Female118 692(45.1)2 737 311(48.1)4.2
 Male144 648(54.9)2 949 488(51.9)4.7
Race/ethnicity<.001
 White124 489(47.3)2 712 068(47.7)4.4
 Black37 355(14.2)819 124(14.4)4.4
 Hispanic40 389(15.3)1 077 889(19.0)3.6
 Asian or Pacific Islander5348(2.0)240 595(4.2)2.2
 Other19 979(7.6)373 967(6.6)5.1
 Missing35 808(13.6)464 925(8.2)7.2
Insurance status<.001
 Private97 430(37.0)2 543 827(44.8)3.7
 Public140 210(53.3)2 685 097(47.3)5.0
 Self-pay10 271(3.9)226 311(4.0)4.3
 No charge or other15 136(5.8)218 783(3.8)6.5
Income quartile<.001
 $1–38 99981 169(31.5)1 651 409(29.6)4.7
 $39 000–47 99969 497(26.9)1 361 819(24.4)4.8
 $48 000–62 99959 436(23.0)1 344 434(24.1)4.2
 $63 000+47 888(18.6)1 220 712(21.9)3.8
Residence<.001
 Urban204 193(77.8)4 810 546(84.8)4.1
 Rural58 323(22.2)859 644(15.2)6.4
Illness severityc<.001
 Minor or no loss of function98 167(37.3)3 880 348(68.3)2.5
 Moderate loss of function92 286(35.1)1 311 517(23.1)6.6
 Major loss of function47 873(18.2)407 846(7.2)10.5
 Extreme loss of function24 737(9.4)84 754(1.5)22.6
CCs<.001
 No CC88 437(33.6)4 000 071(70.3)2.2
 ≥1 CC174 930(66.4)1 688 497(29.7)9.4
CCCs<.001
 No CCC182 832(69.4)5 000 567(87.9)3.5
 1 or more CCCs80 536(30.6)688 000(12.1)10.5
Principal diagnosisd<.001
 Mood disorder23 353(8.9)128 717(2.3)15.4
 Other perinatal conditions22 933(8.7)40 783(0.7)36.0
 Prematuritye12 757(4.8)4741(0.1)72.9
 Asthma11 204(4.2)112 922(2.0)9.0
 Bronchiolitis or bronchitis10 101(3.8)109 514(1.9)8.4
 Pneumoniaf9606(3.6)115 576(2.0)7.7
 Seizure or epilepsy9166(3.5)66 470(1.2)12.1
 Appendicitisg6288(2.4)79 758(1.4)7.3
 Diabetes mellitus6212(2.4)41 808(0.7)12.9
 Cardiac congenital anomaliesh5862(2.2)20 952(0.4)21.9
 Other145 777(55.4)4 65 173(87.3)2.8
Utilization
 OR procedure<.001
  No major OR procedure212 604(80.7)4 225 499(74.3)4.8
  Major OR procedure50 763(19.3)1 463 069(25.7)3.4
 Weekend admission<.001
  Not a weekend admission195 209(74.1)4 535 341(79.7)4.1
  Weekend admission68 158(25.9)1 153 216(20.3)5.6
 Elective admission.03
  Not an elective admission237 754(90.5)5 275 321(92.9)4.3
  Elective admission24 835(9.4)405 771(7.1)5.8
 Discharge disposition<.001
  Routine home237 187(90.1)5 466 059(96.1)4.2
  Transfer to nonacute facilityi8099(3.1)41 446(0.7)16.3
  Home health12 924(4.9)151 065(2.6)7.9
  Against medical advice693(0.3)12 187(0.2)5.4
  Died4464(1.7)17 810(0.3)20.0
  • CC, chronic conditions; CCCs, complex chronic conditions; OR, operating room.

  • a Unweighted transfers = 187 096. Unweighted nontransfers = 2 493 120. Transfers include hospitalizations with an admission source from another inpatient hospital or emergency department. Nontransfers include hospitalizations with a nontransfer admission source. Excluding neonatal hospitalizations resulted in N = 198 564 for transfers and N = 1 904 030 for nontransfers (unweighted = 141 536 and 1 350 039, respectively).

  • b P values refer to comparisons between transfers and nontransfers. Determined by using univariate survey–weighted logistic regression analysis based on a likelihood ratio test for variation among levels.

  • c All-Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups illness severity.

  • d Designation of the principal diagnosis is based on physician discharge documentation. The diagnoses listed are the most frequently transferred principal diagnoses, listed in descending order.

  • e Prematurity includes short gestation, low birth weight, and fetal growth retardation.

  • f Pneumonia includes pneumonia except that caused by tuberculosis or sexually transmitted disease.

  • g Appendicitis includes appendicitis and other appendiceal conditions.

  • h Cardiac congenital anomalies includes cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies.

  • i Nonacute facility includes skilled nursing facility, intermediate care facility, and another type of facility.