TABLE 1

Demographics of All Subjects and of Each Treatment Group

VariableAll Subjects (N = 242)Treatment GroupsP
Ipratropium Only (n = 94 [38.8%])Magnesium Only (n = 13 [5.4%])Magnesium and Ipratropium (n = 42 [17.4%])No Adjunct (n = 93 [38.4%])
Location, n (%)
 Akron19 (7.9)10 (52.6)0 (0)7 (36.8)2 (10.5)<.001
 Cincinnati101 (41.7)6 (5.9)10 (9.9)2 (2)83 (82.2)
 Cleveland58 (24)48 (82.8)1 (1.7)8 (13.8)1 (1.7)
 Columbus52 (21.5)25 (48.1)1 (1.9)25 (48.1)1 (1.9)
 Dayton6 (2.5)5 (83.3)0 (0)0 (0)1 (16.7)
 Toledo6 (2.5)0 (0)1 (16.7)0 (0)5 (83.3)
Sex, n (%)
 Male146 (60.3)56 (38.4)8 (5.5)26 (17.8)56 (38.4).995
 Female96 (39.7)38 (39.6)5 (5.2)16 (16.7)37 (38.5)
Age, y, median (IQR)6.5 (4.0–10.4)5.7 (4.0–9.6)a8.0 (3.2–12.5)8.0 (6.0–12.0)b5.7 (3.3–9.3)a
Weight, kg, median (IQR)23.7 (16.5–37.4)21.8 (16.4–34.1)a37.2 (14.5–38.5)31.9 (23.4–49.1)b20.7 (15.5–32.0)a
Race and/or ethnicity, n (%)
 African American119 (49.2)54 (45.4)6 (5)19 (16)40 (33.6).699
 White60 (24.8)18 (30)5 (8.3)11 (18.3)26 (43.3)
 Hispanic7 (2.9)3 (42.9)0 (0)1 (14.3)3 (42.9)
 Unknown race56 (23.1)19 (33.9)2 (3.6)11 (19.6)24 (42.9)
Gestational age, n (%)
 ≥37 wk140 (57.9)54 (38.6)8 (5.7)25 (17.9)53 (37.9).271
 32–36 wk45 (18.6)20 (44.4)0 (0)10 (22.2)15 (33.3)
 <32 wk9 (3.7)15 (31.3)5 (10.4)5 (10.4)23 (47.9)
 Unknown48 (19.8)5 (55.6)0 (0)2 (22.2)2 (22.2)
Location, n (%)
 Ward30 (12.4)1 (3.3)1 (3.3)2 (6.7)26 (86.7)<.001
 PICU212 (87.6)93 (43.9)12 (5.7)40 (18.9)67 (31.6)
Respiratory failure, n (%)
 Yes45 (18.6)18 (40)2 (4.4)20 (44.4)5 (11.1)<.001
 No197 (81.4)76 (38.6)11 (5.6)22 (11.2)88 (44.7)
  • For age and weight, each treatment group was compared individually with each other treatment group in post hoc, pairwise testing. For both age and weight, ipratropium only differed significantly from dual therapy, and dual therapy differed significantly from no adjunct; no other pairwise comparisons were statistically significant. —, not applicable.

  • a P < .05 versus dual therapy (magnesium and ipratropium) for age and weight by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with Dunn’s test.

  • b P < .05 versus no adjunctive therapy for age and weight by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with Dunn’s test.