TABLE 5

Respiratory Support Modality and Associated Medication Use and Charges

NonintubatedIntubated
NC/NRB (n = 184)NPPVIMV- OSH (n = 11)IMV-PCH (n = 4)
HFNC (n = 26)CPAP/BiPAP (n = 37)
Total ICU pharmacy charges, $, median (IQR)352 (263–597)817 (504–1426)976 (521–1693)1270 (864–2926)8205 (4573–12 125)
Total ICU pharmacy charges per LOS d, $, median (IQR)284 (211–371)234 (170–452)342 (253–425)546 (412–1344)$660 (349–1013)
Medications before PICU admission, n (%)
 Ipratropium bromide144 (78)17 (65)27 (73)6 (55)4 (100)
 Magnesium sulfate76 (41)13 (50)21 (57)5 (46)3 (75)
 Terbutaline14 (8)9 (35)15 (41)6 (55)3 (75)
 Methylxanthine1 (0.5)0000
 Heliox1 (0.5)03 (7)00
 Nitric oxide00000
 Racemic epinephrine00000
Medications after PICU admission
 Ipratropium, n (%)22 (12)9 (35)11 (30)5 (45)3 (75)
 Ipratropium bromide charges, $ median (IQR)8 (4–27)22 (4–66)
 Magnesium sulfate, n (%)21 (11)7 (27)14 (38)3 (27)3 (75)
 Magnesium sulfate charges, $, median (IQR)a63 (33–141)179 (99–645)
 Terbutaline, n (%)10 (5)8 (31)14 (38)5 (46)3 (75)
 Terbutaline charges, $, median (IQR)a467 (194–1469)338 (204–814)
 Methylxanthine, n (%)002 (5)1 (9)1 (25)
 Heliox, n (%)3 (2)1 (4)01 (9)0
 Nitric oxide, n (%)001 (3)00
 Racemic epinephrine, n (%)00000
  • Methylxanthine is aminophylline or theophylline. All the patients received short-acting β-agonists and systemic corticosteroids.

  • a Among those who received the asthma therapy.