TABLE 1

NAS Management Survey Results

CategoryResponse%No. of Institutions
NICU level, n = 179Level I0.61
Level II16.229
Level III83.2149
Academic affiliation, n = 179Yes50.891
No49.288
Geographical setting, n = 178Urban40.472
Metropolitan20.236
Suburban31.556
Rural7.914
Average daily NAS census, n = 167≤592.8155
6–106.010
11–151.22
16–200.00
≥210.00
Average NAS hospital stay, n = 149≤10 d14.822
11–15 d29.544
16–20 d13.420
21–25 d12.819
26–30 d15.423
31–35 d6.710
36–40 d4.77
41–45 d1.32
46–50 d1.32
≥51 d0.00
Written protocol for NAS management, n = 167Yes72.5121
No27.546
Prenatal counseling, n = 159Yes56.590
Begins in first trimester63.357
Begins in second trimester16.715
Begins in third trimester11.318
No43.469
Protocol of community drug abuse treatment centers, n = 168Primarily maintenance treatment50.685
Primarily detoxification0.00
Equal emphasis on maintenance and detoxification14.324
No centers available2.44
Unsure32.755
Toxicology screening, n = 171No1.83
Yes98.2168
Single agent7.012
Combined agents91.2156
NAS symptom scoring tool, n = 157Finnegan scoring95.5150
Lipsitz tool1.93
Ostrea system0.00
Rivers scoring scale1.32
Riley infant pain scale0.61
None used1.32
Other8.313
Formal training on scoring tool use, n = 169In-house training program66.9113
External training program0.00
None provided32.555
NA; no scoring tool used0.61
Primary modality of NAS management, n = 157Primarily pharmacotherapy, with adjunct supportive care19.731
Primarily supportive care, with adjunct pharmacotherapy26.141
Equal reliance on both supportive care and pharmacotherapy54.185
Other2.54
Use of clonidine, n = 155Yes19.430
No80.6125
Support breastfeeding during opiate maintenance, n = 147Yes74.1109
No25.938
Availability of home treatment, n = 150Yes34.051
No66.099
Availability of long-term developmental follow-up, n = 150Yes71.3107
Provided for all NAS/in utero drug exposure41.362
Scheduled as needed30.045
No28.643
  • NA, not applicable.