TABLE 2

AEDs and the Most Common Interacting Drugs as a Percentage of Hospitalizations With an AED

Hospitalizations With pDDIs (N = 181 380)Hospitalizations With Severe pDDIs (N = 117 880)
AEDAll Hospitalizations Associated With an AED (N = 434 794), Nn%aDrugs (Top 3)%an%bDrugs (Top 3)%b
Phenobarbital96 99772 10139.8Lorazepam17.261 93252.5Lorazepam26.5
Midazolam15.3Midazolam23.6
Morphine14.8Morphine22.7
Valproic acid70 76431 91817.6Lorazepam8.210 7139.1Ketorolac6.9
Ketorolac4.5Trazodone1.3
Risperidone3.1Meropenem0.8
Phenytoin31 71225 78614.2Ranitidine6.211 73010.0Lidocaine6.0
Fentanyl5.3Dopamine2.0
Midazolam5.1Lidocaine and prilocaine1.8
Gabapentin55 51523 45712.9Morphine10.986607.3Ketorolac6.8
Ketorolac4.4Naproxen0.9
Naproxen0.6
Clonazepam50 85715 6368.6Morphine5.715 47913.1Morphine8.8
Oxycodone1.5Oxycodone2.4
Hydromorphone1.3Hydromorphone1.9
Carbamazepine22 06713 2247.3Fentanyl2.927442.3Ketorolac1.7
Midazolam2.4Trazodone0.2
Dexamethasone1.3Nifedipine0.2
Topiramate58 53197985.4Ketorolac3.881616.9Ketorolac5.8
Amitriptyline0.8Citalopram0.6
Acetazolamide0.5Naproxen0.5
Levetiracetam134 85975194.1Ketorolac4.175196.4Ketorolac6.4
Oxcarbazepine54 65345782.5Ketorolac1.942213.6Ketorolac2.9
Citalopram0.3Citalopram0.5
Naproxen0.1Naproxen0.2
Lamotrigine38 30036552.0Risperidone1.20
Sertraline0.5
Escitalopram0.3
Pregabalin581012990.7Ketorolac0.712991.1Ketorolac1.0
Naproxen0.1Naproxen0.1
Primidone13538970.5Lorazepam0.27410.6Lorazepam0.3
Diazepam0.2Diazepam0.3
Midazolam0.1Midazolam0.2
Clobazam7212170.1Morphine0.01330.1Morphine0.1
Omeprazole0.0Oxycodone0.0
Oxycodone0.0Hydromorphone0.0
Rufinamide35101920.1Ketorolac0.11920.2Ketorolac0.2
Naproxen0.0Naproxen0.0
Lacosamide29101520.1Ketorolac0.11520.1Ketorolac0.1
Naproxen0.0Naproxen0.0
Zonisamide21 4901150.1Metformin0.01150.1Metformin0.1
Naproxen0.0Naproxen0.0
Tiagabine656730.0Ketorolac0.0730.1Ketorolac0.1
Naproxen0.0Naproxen0.0
Vigabatrin68140.0Ketorolac0.040.0Ketorolac0.0
Felbamate665330.0Warfarin0.00
Ethotoin7820.0Ketorolac0.020.0Ketorolac0.0
Ethosuximide24870
Methsuximide2190
  • a Percentage of all hospitalizations with an AED associated with a pDDI.

  • b Percentage of all hospitalizations with an AED associated with a severe pDDI.