TABLE 2

Summary of PPS Characteristics Using DEX

CharacteristicValue
n13 072
DEX administration
 Bolus only4302 (32.9)
 Infusion only2937 (22.5)
 Bolus and infusion3961 (30.3)
 Intranasal only1250 (9.6)
 Intramuscular only229 (1.8)
 Sublingual only211 (1.6)
 Other133 (1.0)
 Orally only44 (0.3)
 No administration data5 (0.04)
Location of sedation
 Radiology/sedation unit11 880 (90.9)
 Specialty clinic/floor676 (5.2)
 PICU319 (2.4)
 ED43 (0.3)
 Cardiac catheterization suite5 (0.04)
 Dental2 (0.02)
 Other147 (1.1)
Painful proceduresa511 (3.9)
Adjunctive medications
 Lidocaine103 (0.8)
 Opioids (morphine/fentanyl)494 (3.8)
 Benzodiazepines (midazolam and ativan)b8020 (61.4)
 Anticholinergics (glycopyrrolate and atropine)185 (1.4)
 Ketamine746 (5.7)
 Chloral hydrate44 (0.3)
 Barbiturates (pentobarbital and methohexital)60 (0.5)
Primary sedation provider
 Anesthesiologist4585 (35.1)
 Intensivist4461 (34.1)
 Emergency medicine1662 (12.7)
 Other2223 (17.0)
 Hospitalist141 (1.1)
  • Data are n (%) unless noted otherwise.

  • a Painful procedures are defined in Appendix 3.

  • b The use of benzodiazepines may be underestimated because of changes in the data collection in 2011.