TABLE 2

Patient Characteristics Pre– and Post–Propensity Score Matching

PrematchPostmatch
GJ First N = 163Fundo First N = 1178PGJ First N = 114Fundo First N = 114P
Median age, mo (Q1, Q3)4 (0, 32)2 (0, 9)<.013 (0, 17)2 (0, 17).39
Age group, n (%)
 <3 mo73 (44.8)670 (56.9)54 (47.4)60 (52.6)
 3 to <6 mo17 (10.4)149 (12.6)13 (11.4)10 (8.8)
 6 mo to <1 y13 (8.0)87 (7.4)<.0113 (11.4)13 (11.4).76
 1 to <3 y21 (12.9)112 (9.5)13 (11.4)16 (14.1)
 3 to <12 y21 (12.9)106 (9.0)14 (12.2)9 (7.9)
 12 to 17+ y18 (11.0)54 (4.6)7 (6.1)6 (5.3)
Female sex, n (%)80 (49.1)522 (44.3).2554 (47.4)55 (48.2).90
Race, n (%)
 Non-Hispanic white92 (56.4)749 (63.6)65 (57.0)76 (66.7)
 Non-Hispanic black14 (8.6)164 (13.9)11 (9.6)8 (7.0)
 Hispanic28 (17.2)96 (8.1)<.0120 (17.5)16 (14.0).66
 Asian3 (1.8)20 (1.7)3 (2.6)3 (2.6)
 Other26 (16.0)149 (12.6)15 (13.2)11 (9.6)
Insurance, n (%)
 Government91 (55.8)563 (47.8)65 (57.0)61 (53.5)
 Private61 (37.4)503 (42.7).1346 (40.4)49 (43.0).83
 Other11 (6.7)112 (9.5)3 (2.6)4 (3.5)
Complex chronic conditions, n (%)
 Cardiovascular40 (24.5)247 (21.0).3030 (26.3)31 (27.2).88
 Respiratory25 (15.3)195 (16.6).6917 (14.9)20 (17.5).59
 Renal3 (1.8)44 (3.7).222 (1.8)7 (6.1).17
 Gastrointestinal4 (2.5)27 (2.3).783 (2.6)1 (0.9).62
 Hematological or immunological7 (4.3)34 (2.9).335 (4.4)4 (3.5).99
 Metabolic8 (4.9)15 (1.3)<.014 (3.5)1 (0.9).37
 Congenital or genetic42 (25.8)325 (27.6).6334 (29.8)38 (33.3).57
 Malignancy7 (4.3)23 (2.0).085 (4.4)0 (0.0).06
Specific characteristics, n (%)
 Tracheostomy, any time31 (19.0)301 (25.6).0723 (20.2)17 (14.9).30
 Upper airway anomaly67 (41.1)585 (49.7).0457 (50.0)52 (45.6).51
 Previous aspiration pneumonia17 (10.4)108 (9.2).6013 (11.4)15 (13.2).69
 Previous swallow study36 (22.1)96 (8.1)<.0126 (22.8)20 (17.5).32
 CSF shunt18 (11.0)108 (9.2).4411 (9.6)14 (12.3).53
 Chronic lung disease43 (26.4)366 (31.1).2229 (25.4)41 (36.0).09
Contraindications, n (%)
 Microgastria5 (3.1)14 (1.2).075 (4.4)1 (0.9).21
 Barrett esophagus1 (0.6)4 (0.3).480 (0.0)0 (0.0).99
 Peptic stricture5 (3.1)57 (4.8).314 (3.5)3 (2.6).99
 Esophageal dysmotility3 (1.8)29 (2.5).793 (2.6)2 (1.8).99
 Short esophagus0 (0.0)10 (0.8).620 (0.0)0 (0.0).99
 GI motility disorder18 (11.0)36 (3.1)<.019 (7.9)4 (3.5).15
 Gastric outlet obstruction3 (1.8)12 (1.0).410 (0.0)3 (2.6).25
Technology dependencies, n (%)
 Respiratory48 (29.4)438 (37.2).0539 (34.2)30 (26.3).19
 Renal21 (12.9)66 (5.6)<.0116 (14.0)14 (12.3).70
 Brain and spinal cord49 (30.1)350 (29.7).9330 (26.3)32 (28.1).77
 Gastrointestinal163 (100)1178 (100).99114 (100)114 (100).99
 Cardiac0 (0.0)10 (0.8).620 (0.0)0 (0.0).99
 Medication infusion4 (2.5)25 (2.1).774 (3.5)4 (3.5).99
Clinical NI groupings, n (%)
 Asphyxia, anoxia, arrest75 (46.0)497 (42.2).3653 (46.5)50 (43.9).69
 Brain/spinal cord abnormalities69 (42.3)447 (37.9).2851 (44.7)47 (41.2).59
 Cerebral palsy44 (27.0)288 (24.4).4832 (28.1)25 (21.9).28
 Cerebrovascular disease20 (12.3)111 (9.4).2511 (9.6)8 (7.0).47
 Encephalopathy44 (27.0)210 (17.8).0130 (26.3)27 (23.7).65
 Genetic conditions66 (40.5)442 (37.5).4650 (43.9)50 (43.9).99
 Hydrocephalus24 (14.7)174 (14.8).9916 (14.0)16 (14.0).99
 Intracranial hemorrhage/injury11 (6.7)169 (14.3).0110 (8.8)9 (7.9).81
 Optic atrophy and other visual49 (30.1)308 (26.1).2939 (34.2)31 (27.2).25
 Seizures86 (52.8)499 (42.4).0157 (50.0)55 (48.2).79
 Spina bifida3 (1.8)31 (2.6).793 (2.6)4 (3.5).99
 Other CNS injurya8 (4.9)77 (6.5).424 (3.5)3 (2.6).99
 Other CNSa60 (36.8)372 (31.6).1837 (32.5)36 (31.6).89
 Other PNSa31 (19.0)192 (16.3).3820 (17.5)21 (18.4).86
NI diagnoses
 Single diagnosis40 (24.5)304 (25.8).7327 (23.7)27 (23.7).99
 2+ diagnoses123 (75.5)874 (74.2)87 (76.3)87 (76.3)
 Single grouping49 (30.1)364 (30.9).8334 (29.8)32 (28.1).77
 2+ groupings114 (69.9)814 (69.1)80 (70.2)82 (71.9)
  • CNS, central nervous system; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; fundo, fundoplication; PNS, peripheral nervous system.

  • a See Supplemental Table 5.