Adjusted Odds of Male Infants Being Diagnosed With NAS or NAS Requiring Pharmacologic Treatment Compared With Female Infants

VariableUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted ORa (95% CI)
NAS1.05 (0.93–1.20)1.18 (1.05–1.33)
NAS requiring pharmacologic treatment1.09 (0.93–1.29)1.24 (1.04–1.47)
  • Total sample = 102 446 infants (249 infants not included due to missing data unable to be imputed). Odds can be interpreted as the likelihood an infant will be diagnosed with NAS. For example, in adjusted analyses, we found that male infants have a higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.18) of being diagnosed with NAS, which can be interpreted that male infants are 18% more likely to be diagnosed with NAS. The CI for this finding (1.05–1.33) does not cross 1, meaning that it is a statistically significant outcome.

  • a Adjusted for maternal age, race, and education; maternal hepatitis C infection or psychiatric diagnosis (anxiety or depression); in utero exposure to SSRIs and cigarettes; infant birth weight, small for gestational age, and year; and the interaction between opioid type and opioid amount.