TABLE 1

Characteristics of Infants and Mothers According to Infant Sex, TennCare, 2009 to 2011

CharacteristicMale Infants (n = 52 146)Female Infants (n = 50 549)P
Maternal characteristics
 Age, mean ± SD, y24.1 ± 5.224.0 ± 5.2.04
 Education.77
  Some high school12 739 (24.4)12 340 (24.4)
  Completed high school21 834 (41.9)21 269 (42.1)
  Any college17 573 (33.7)16 940 (33.5)
 Race.28
  White35 875 (69.1)34 916 (69.4)
  African American15 369 (29.6)14 787 (29.4)
  Other706 (1.4)635 (1.3)
Maternal comorbidities
 Hepatitis C infection313 (0.6)314 (0.6).67
 Depression1774 (3.4)1718 (3.4).98
 Anxiety disorder1188 (2.3)1215 (2.4).18
Opioid use characteristics
 Any opioid use14 481 (27.8)14 166 (28.0).36
  Short-acting opioid14 028 (26.9)13 680 (27.1).19
  Long-acting opioid88 (0.2)78 (0.2)
  Maintenance opioid365 (0.7)408 (0.8)
 Oral morphine equivalents, mean ± SD1164 ± 51061247 ± 5526.18
Other substance use
 SSRI use in past 30 d1336 (2.6)1323 (2.6).58
 Tobacco use15 828 (30.4)15 514 (30.7).24
 No. of cigarettes/d
  1–109713 (64.5)9390 (63.2).09
  11–203528 (23.4)3541 (23.8)
  21–40377 (2.5)399 (2.7)
  >401447 (9.6)1524 (10.3)
Infant characteristics
 Gestational age, mean ± SD, mo38.6 ± 2.138.7 ± 2.1<.001
 Preterm (<37 wk)5678 (10.9)5141 (10.2)<.001
 Birth weight, mean ± SD, g3235 ± 5753119 ± 543<.001
 Low birth weight (<2500 g)4629 (8.9)5402 (10.7)<.001
 Small for gestational age9274 (17.8)9069 (17.9).51
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.