TABLE 1

Demographics and Baseline (Preoperative) Parent Psychometric Factors

Mean/N (%)SDParent Preoperative Anxiety CategoryP, Fisher’s exact/Student t test
No or Mild Anxiety, HADS <11Moderate or Severe Anxiety, HADS ≥11
N715516
Child
 Mean age, mo6.63.06.76.1.546
 Feeding tubea97 (78%)2 (22%).999
 NICU staya2320 (87%)3 (13%).496
Type of repair
 Cleft lip or palate5848 (83%)10 (17%).024
 Craniosynostosis137 (54%)6 (46%)
Parent
 % Female9088.993.8.569
 Mean age, y34.24.934.533.1.340
 Mean socioeconomic status (n = 64)2651.110.851.051.4.896
 Race
  White70.066.181.3.796
  Black7.08.06.3
  Asian5.25.40
  Hispanic11.310.712.5
  Other7.18.90
Parent pediatric pain knowledge (0–15), mean score279.42.19.310.335
  • a History of feeding tube and NICU stay missing for n = 16.