TABLE 2

Infant and Maternal Characteristics Associated With NAS Diagnoses According to Infant Sex, TennCare, 2009 to 2011

CharacteristicMale Infants (n = 484)Female Infants (n = 443)P
Maternal characteristics
 Age, mean ± SD, y26.0 ± 4.726.2 ± 4.7.51
 Education.95
  Some high school142 (29.3)132 (29.8)
  Completed high school212 (43.8)196 (44.2)
  Any college130 (26.9)115 (26.0)
 Race.02
  White456 (94.6)428 (97.3)
  African American26 (5.4)10 (2.3)
  Otheraa
Maternal comorbidities
 Hepatitis C infection54 (11.2)50 (11.3).95
 Depression51 (10.5)48 (10.8).88
 Anxiety disorder50 (10.3)44 (9.9).84
Opioid use characteristics
 Any opioid use298 (61.6)297 (67.0).08
  Short-acting opioid184 (38.0)175 (39.5).32
  Long-acting opioid10 (2.0)11 (2.5)
  Maintenance opioid104 (21.5)111 (25.1)
 Oral morphine equivalents, mean ± SD10 453 ± 16 08010 719 ± 16 302.84
Other substance use
 SSRI use in past 30 d45 (9.3)50 (11.3).32
 Tobacco use380 (78.9)361 (81.5).26
 No. of cigarettes/d
  1–10103 (21.3)81 (18.3).42
  11–20190 (39.3)166 (37.5)
  21–40124 (25.6)128 (28.9)
  >4013 (2.7)19 (4.3)
Infant characteristics
 Gestational age, mean ± SD, mo38.2 ± 2.238.5 ± 2.0.07
 Preterm (<37 wk)81 (16.7)69 (15.6).63
 Birth weight, mean ± SD, g2996 ± 5412848 ± 497<.001
 Low birth weight (<2500 g)84 (17.4)105 (23.7).02
 Small for gestational age165 (33.1)155 (35.0).77
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • a Value <10 and suppressed.