TABLE 1

Profile of Patient- and Hospital-Level Characteristics for Transferred Pediatric Hospitalizations

CharacteristicHospital A/Transferred Patients (N = 546)Hospital B/Transferred Patients (N = 87)Pa
Patient characteristics
 Age group, y.003
  0–1121 (22.2)27 (31.0)
  2–599 (18.1)17 (19.5)
  6–11115 (21.1)26 (29.9)
  12–18161 (29.5)17 (19.5)
  19–2650 (9.2)0
 Sex.44
  Female269 (49.3)39 (44.8)
  Male277 (50.7)48 (55.2)
 Primary language.18
  English440 (80.6)76 (87.4)
  Non-English92 (16.8)11 (12.6)
  Missing14 (2.6)0
 Insurance status.003
  Public378 (69.2)49 (56.3)
  Nonpublic149 (27.3)38 (43.7)
  Missing19 (3.5)0
Hospital characteristics
 Pretransfer location type<.001
  Clinic31 (5.7)2 (2.3)
  Emergency department377 (69.0)80 (92.0)
  Inpatient unit136 (24.9)5 (5.8)
  Missing2 (0.4)0
 Pretransfer facility type.08
  Not freestanding children’s505 (92.5)86 (98.8)
  Freestanding children’s36 (6.6)1 (1.2)
  Missing5 (0.9)0
 Pretransfer provider specialty<.001
  Emergency medicine271 (49.6)63 (72.4)
  Pediatrics174 (31.9)16 (18.4)
  Family medicine15 (2.8)7 (8.0)
  Other50 (9.2)0
  Missing36 (6.6)1 (1.2)
 Pretransfer provider degree<.001
  MD or DO516 (94.5)81 (93.1)
  NP or PA3 (0.6)5 (5.8)
  Missing27 (5.0)1 (1.2)
 Posttransfer clinical service team<.001
  Hospitalist285 (52.2)72 (82.8)
  Hematology-oncology96 (17.6)5 (5.8)
  Surgery34 (6.2)6 (6.9)
  Gastroenterology19 (3.5)2 (2.3)
  Cardiology20 (3.7)0
  Other90 (16.5)2 (2.3)
  Missing2 (0.4)0
Utilization
 Transport distance, mean (95% CI), miles92.6 (84.6–100.5)38.0 (29.6–46.4)<.001
 Transport distance, median (IQR), miles65 (30–120)33 (9–44)
 Transport time, mean (95% CI), h4.6 (4.0–5.1)6.6 (5.2–7.9)<.001
 Transport time, median (IQR), h3.1 (2.2–4.9)4.3 (3.3–6.8)
 Transport mode<.001
  Ground366 (67.0)81 (93.1)
  Air99 (18.1)5 (5.8)
  Missing81 (14.8)1 (1.2)
 Length of stay, mean (95% CI), d8.4 (6.9–10.0)2.8 (1.9–3.7)<.001
 Length of stay, median (IQR), d3.7 (1.8–8.6)1.4 (1.0–2.4)
 Discharge disposition.21
  Routine home514 (94.1)86 (98.8)
  Transfer to acute facility5 (0.9)1 (1.2)
  Died6 (1.1)0
  Other21 (3.8)0
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated. DO, Doctor of Osteopathy; IRQ, 25%–75% interquartile range; MD, Doctor of Medicine; NP, nurse practitioner; PA, physician’s assistant.

  • a P values refer to comparisons between hospital sites. Determined by using χ2 tests for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables.