TABLE 2

Additional Characteristics of Cases and Controls

Cases (Fractures) N = 35Controls (No Fractures) N = 70P
N (% of cases) or Median (25th to 75th IQR)N (% of cases) or Median (25th to 75th IQR)
Age in months at fracture (cases) or index date (controls)5.0 (2.0 to 10.0)3.5 (2.0 to 7.0).14
Race/ethnicity.89
 White, Non-Hispanic22 (63)41 (59)
 African-American, Non-Hispanic4 (11)5 (7)
 Asian, Non-Hispanic1 (3)1 (1)
 Other, Non-Hispanic3 (9)9 (13)
 Hispanic/Latino3 (9)5 (7)
 Unknown4 (11)7 (10)
BMI z score at admissiona
 Median−1.6 (−4.4 to −0.6)−2.2 (−3.7 to −0.9).61
z score ≤−312 (38)22 (44).56
Length of stay (d) until fracture (cases) or index date (controls)61.0 (35.0 to 100.0)50.0 (21.0 to 99.0).28
Primary diagnosisb.45
 Tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and stenosis9 (26)5 (7)
 Patent ductus arteriosus4 (11)0 (0)
 Congestive heart failure, unspecified2 (6)1 (1)
 Hypoplastic left heart syndrome2 (6)5 (7)
 Extreme immaturity, 500–749 g2 (6)3 (4)
Primary procedureb.25
 Other surgical occlusion of vessels, thoracic vessels4 (11)4 (6)
 Other repair of esophagus3 (9)1 (1)
 Closure of other fistula of trachea2 (6)2 (3)
 Open heart valvuloplasty of mitral valve without replacement2 (6)0 (0)
 Heart transplantation2 (6)5 (7)
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation2 (6)7 (10)
 Intrathoracic esophagoesophagostomy2 (6)0 (0)
Disposition.38
 Discharged to home17 (49)34 (49)
 Discharged to other facility12 (34)30 (43)
 Expired6 (17)6 (9)
  • a N = 32 for cases, N = 50 for controls.

  • b Top 5 most common for cases shown.