TABLE 3

Bivariate Associations of Clinical Characteristics Related to Fracture

Cases (Fractures) (N = 35)Controls (No Fractures) (N = 70)Unadjusted OR95% CIP
N (%) or Median (25th to 75th IQR)N (%) or Median (25th to 75th IQR)
Age, moa5.0 (2.0 to 10.0)3.5 (2.0 to 7.0)1.0b1.0–1.1.24
BMI z scorec
 Admission−1.6 (−4.4 to −0.6)−2.2 (−3.7 to −0.9)1.10.9–1.2.46
BMI z score ≤−3
 Admission12 (38)22 (44)0.60.2–1.5.24
Days in ICU until fracture (cases) or index date (controls)53.0 (19.0 to 99.0)43.0 (18.0 to 93.0)1.3d1.0–1.5.02
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease27 (77)56 (80)0.80.3–2.4.72
 Respiratory disease29 (83)45 (64)2.51.0–6.4.06
 Kidney disease19 (54)25 (36)3.31.0–10.3.04
 Nutrition deficiency22 (63)33 (47)2.20.9–5.6.10
 Prematurity11 (31)27 (39)0.70.3–1.8.43
Primary diagnosis
 Tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and stenosis9 (26)5 (7)4.21.3–13.7.02
Medicationse
 Anesthetics26 (74)46 (66)1.60.6–4.4.33
  Rate2.6 (0.0 to 6.9)2.6 (0.0 to 5.5)1.0d0.8–1.2.90
 Muscle relaxants27 (77)48 (69)1.50.6–3.8.37
  Rate12.5 (1.5 to 44.3)5.7 (0 to 19.6)1.1d1.0–1.2.06
 Diuretics30 (86)55 (79)1.60.5–5.0.38
  Rate67.4 (35.7 to 96.7)50.7 (2.3 to 96.7)1.0d1.0–1.1.24
 Heparin32 (91)58 (83)2.30.6–9.0.23
  Rate42.1 (15.2 to 82.4)21.0 (3.3 to 63.6)1.0d1.0–1.1.17
 Calcium20 (57)43 (61)0.80.3–2.1.61
  Rate2.2 (0.0 to 19.0)2.2 (0.0 to 11.3)1.0d0.9–1.1.67
 Phosphate7 (20)9 (13)1.70.6–5.1.33
  Rate0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)1.1d0.6–1.9.82
 Multivitamin8 (23)11 (16)1.60.6–4.3.38
  Rate0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)0 (0.0 to 0.0)1.1d1.0–1.2.12
 Glucocorticoids18 (51)32 (46)1.30.5–3.1.56
  Rate1.0 (0.0 to 16.9)0.0 (0.0 to 18.9)1.0d0.9–1.1.68
 Anticonvulsants1 (3)8 (11)0.20.0–1.9.17
  Rate0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)0.7d0.3–1.6.38
Interventions and studies
 Physical therapy23 (66)46 (66)1.00.4–2.81.00
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation2 (6)7 (10)0.50.1–3.4.40
  Ratef0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)0.1d0.0–33.4.44
 Intubation17 (49)33 (47)1.10.4–2.6.88
 Total parenteral nutrition29 (83)52 (74)1.80.6–5.2.29
  Rateg10.4 (5.1 to 42.9)10.4 (0.0 to 17.4)0.9d0.8–1.1.47
 Operative procedures4.0 (1.0 to 8.0)2.0 (0.0 to 6.0)1.11.0–1.2.11
  Rateh6.6 (2.3 to 9.1)5.4 (0.0 to 9.6)1.0i1.0–1.0.52
 Imaging study
  Ratej101.8 (77.1 to 161.6)115.0 (69.0 to 178.7)1.0i1.0–1.0.83
  • a Age at fracture (cases) or at index date (controls).

  • b Per 1-mo increment.

  • c N = 32 for cases, N = 50 for controls.

  • d Per 5-U increment.

  • e Rate defined as number of days on medication per 100 patient-days at risk.

  • f Rate as days receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation per 100 patient-days at risk.

  • g Rate defined as number of days receiving total parenteral nutrition per 100 patient-days at risk.

  • h Rate defined as number of operative procedures per 100 patient-days at risk.

  • i Per 10-U increment.

  • j Rate defined as number of imaging studies per 100 patient-days at risk.