TABLE 1

Breakdown of Common Causes of Both Transient and Permanent AMS by Age

Infants or ToddlersSchool-Age ChildrenAdolescents
Transient AMS
SeizureSeizureSeizure
TraumaTraumaTrauma
SepsisMigrainePsychiatric causes
BRUESyncopeSyncope
Breath-holding spells
Persistent AMS
SeizureSeizureSeizure
TraumaTraumaTrauma
ShockShockShock
ToxicologicToxicologicToxicologic
Electrolyte abnormalityElectrolyte abnormalityElectrolyte abnormality
Sepsis or encephalitisEncephalitisEncephalitis
Inborn errors of metabolismHyperglycemia or hypoglycemiaHyperglycemia or hypoglycemia
HypoglycemiaBrain massBrain mass
Breath-holding spellsPostictal statePostictal state
IntussusceptionShigellosisPosterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
  • BRUE, brief resolved unexplained event; —, not applicable. (Reprinted with permission from MacNeill EC, Vashist S. Approach to syncope and altered mental status. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(5):1084)