TABLE 1

Comparison of Demographic Characteristics by Formula Randomization Group

CharacteristicsStandard-Calorie Group, N = 22High-Calorie Group, N = 27Pa
n%n%
Mother
 White race20912696.19
 Age, y
  18–24733830.15
  25−296291556
  ≥30838415
 Primiparous5237261.00
 Public insurance209024931.00
 Cesarean delivery418726.73
 Prepregnancy BMIb
  Underweight (<18.5)15312.10
  Normal weight (18.5–24.9)11521040
  Overweight (25.0–29.9)4191144
  Obese (≥30.00)52414
 Smoked during pregnancyc20912178.27
  <1 pack per d9471155.87
  ≥1 pack per d1053945
 Hepatitis C–positive12601763.57
 Methadone dose at delivery
  <100 mg per d11501040.49
  ≥100 mg per d11501560
 Methadone treatment started
  Before pregnancy12551244.64
  First trimester418830
  Second to third trimester628726
 Urine drug screen at delivery positive for illicit drug314830.30
Infant
 Female sex12541556.94
 Race
  White18822489.67
  African American1500
  Biracial314311
 Gestational age, wk
  35–3631414.42
  37–386271037
  ≥3913591659
 Ever treated for NAS16731867.76
 Ever fed breast milk8361348.56
 >50% breast milk feeds on day 315271.00
 Any breast milk at discharge415622.73
 Infant screen at delivery positive for drug other than methadone00622.03
Mean (SD)Median (Range)Mean (SD)Median (Range)Pd
 Birth wt, kg3.05 (0.50)3.09 (2.32 to 3.88)2.82 (0.36)2.89 (2.29 to 3.45).07
 Birth length, cm47.4 (2.1)48 (42.5 to 50)46.4 (2.0)47 (43 to 50.8).08
 Birth head circumference, cm33.2 (1.9)33.5 (29.5 to 37.5)32.6 (1.3)32.2 (30.5 to 34.8).23
 Days treated for NASe14.4 (7.0)13 (4 to 29)17.1 (9.0)15 (7 to 46).34
  • a Based on Fisher's exact test when the frequency in any cell was <8, and chi square if all cell sizes 8 or more.

  • b Three subjects had missing maternal BMI data.

  • c Two subjects had a missing quantity of cigarette use.

  • d Based on t tests of comparison for independent means.

  • e Only infants treated for NAS.