TABLE 1

Team Principles and TeamSTEPPS Definitions

PrincipleTeamSTEPPS Definition10
Communication“The process by which information is exchanged between individuals”
Includes structured ways to communicate that are complete, clear, brief, and timely for the exchange of information, hand offs, and closed-loop communications, wherein the receiver of information repeats back his or her understanding
Situation monitoring“The process of actively scanning behaviors and actions to assess elements of the situation or environment,” which “ensures [that] new or changing information is identified for communication and decision-making”
Situation monitoring leads to situational awareness.
When both situation monitoring and situational awareness are verbalized by team members, a shared mental model is created, which is “the perception of, understanding of, or knowledge about a situation or process.”
LeadershipThe linchpin of teamwork with a focus on the plan of care: creating it, communicating it, watching it play out, and adjusting it
Making decisions.
Directing others.
Managing resources to accomplish the plan of care.
Mutual support“Essence of teamwork”
Team members ask for help and offer help to one another.
Includes conflict resolution, verbal feedback, and assistance with tasks, which is also known as backup behavior15,16,34