TABLE 2

Participant Characteristics and Outcomes

CharacteristicsPre (n = 52)Post (n = 65)P
Mother
 Age, y, mean (SD)30.3 (5.7)28.7 (7.1).17
 Race and/or ethnicity, n (%).44
  Non-Hispanic white11 (21.2)11 (16.9)
  Non-Hispanic black21 (40.4)25 (38.5)
  Hispanic12 (23.1)23 (35.4)
  Others8 (15.4)6 (9.2)
 Insurance type, n (%)
  Medicaid equivalent33 (63.5)55 (84.6).01
  Private15 (28.9)10 (15.4)
  Other4 (7.7)0 (0.0)
 Mode of delivery, n (%).04
  Vaginal39 (75.0)37 (56.9)
  Cesarean13 (25.0)28 (43.1)
 Eligible to breastfeed per hospital guidelines,a n (%)47 (90.4)59 (90.7).70
Infant
 Gestational age, wk, mean (SD)35.3 (0.6)35.3 (0.6).90
 Birth wt, g, mean (SD)2487.3 (418.7)2553 (398.0).38
 Female sex, n (%)22 (42.3)21 (32.3).26
 Multiple birth, n (%)8 (15.4)16 (24.6).22
 Direct NICU admission, n (%)51 (98.1)63 (96.9)1.00
 Discharge location, n (%).13
  NICU26 (50.0)23 (35.9)
  Non-NICU (nursery, PICU, or pedi-floor)26 (50.0)41 (64.1)
Main nonbreastfeeding outcomes
 IV fluids given at >8 h of life, n (%).06
  Yes, per medical indications1 (1.9)4 (6.2)
  Yes, not per medical indications17 (32.7)10 (15.4)
  No34 (65.4)51 (78.5)
Main breastfeeding outcomesb
 Initiation
  Day of life infant first received mother’s milk, (direct breastfeed or expressed milk), mean (SD)1.1 (1.0)0.9 (0.9).07
 Continuation until 24 h before discharge
  Any mother’s milk at 24 h before discharge (direct breastfeed or expressed milk), n (%)35 (74.5)46 (78.0).67
  Exclusive mother’s milk at 24 h before discharge (direct breastfeed or expressed milk), n (%)10 (30.3)10 (21.3).44
  Any direct breastfeeding, n (%)24 (51.1)31 (52.5).88
Secondary outcomes
 Any hypoglycemia (glucose <50 mg/dL) at >8 h of life, n (%)3 (5.8)16 (24.6).01
 Any hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, n (%)22 (42.3)15 (23.1).03
 Maximum % wt loss during the hospitalization, g, mean (SD)0.06 (0.03)0.06 (0.05).86
 Change in wt per d from birth until discharge, g, mean (SD)−5.1 (25.8)−12.6 (30.8).16
 Caloric supplementation of >22 kcal/oz at discharge, n (%)16 (31.4)8 (12.3).02
 Length of stay, d, mean (SD)11.9 (8.8)9.3 (7.5).09
  • a Infants did not receive mother’s milk if their mother had positive urine toxicology results for nonprescribed opioids or other illicit substances in the preceding 10 wk before delivery, HIV, hepatitis C with cracked and bleeding nipples, open herpes lesions on the breast. Infants did not receive mother’s milk from mothers who took medications contraindicated for breastfeeding or from mothers in extreme social circumstances in which mothers were not expected to care for the infant after delivery.

  • b Analysis for breastfeeding outcomes was restricted to infants eligible to receive mother’s milk.