TABLE 3

Drug Classification, Frequency, and Proportion of Study Patients Prescribed Drug and Percent of Off-label Prescription

Commonly Prescribed Medications by Drug ClassificationPatients in PHIS Prescribed Drug, n (%)Patients in PHIS Prescribed Drug Off Label, n (%)
CNS1 821 645 (65.7)553 655 (30.4)
 Acetaminophen735 724 (26.5)0 (0)
 Bupivacaine117 041 (4.2)83 061 (71.0)
 Dexmedetomidine68 493 (2.5)67 576 (98.7)
 Diazepam38 958 (1.4)266 (0.7)
 Fentanyl449 284 (16.2)97 361 (21.7)
 Hydromorphone62 330 (2.3)59 206 (95.0)
 Ibuprofen652 754 (23.5)4354 (0.7)
 Ketamine55 547 (2.0)52 023 (93.7)
 Ketorolac220 696 (8.0)19 785 (9.0)
 Levetiracetam40 676 (1.5)987 (2.4)
 Lorazepam60 647 (2.2)39 429 (65.0)
 Meperidine40 769 (1.5)0 (0)
 Midazolam339 571 (12.2)0 (0)
 Morphine sulfate338 584 (12.2)331 332 (97.9)
 Neostigmine101 920 (3.7)0 (0)
Oxycodone94 012 (3.4)53 417 (56.8)
 Propofol415 430 (15.0)9239 (2.2)
 Rocuronium111 341 (4.0)11 301 (10.2)
 Sevoflurane58 020 (2.1)0 (0)
 Succinylcholine27 970 (1.0)0 (0)
 Vecuronium32 106 (1.2)4724 (14.7)
Respiratory and/or ENT652 987 (23.5)162 447 (24.9)
 Albuterol336 152 (12.1)99 264 (29.5)
 Chlorhexidine61 226 (2.2)0 (0)
 Diphenhydramine189 414 (6.8)27 016 (14.3)
 Fluticasone48 573 (1.8)381 (0.8)
 Ipratropium bromide126 516 (4.6)0 (0)
 Oxymetazoline69 288 (2.5)40 967 (59.1)
 Phenylephrine37 692 (1.4)0 (0)
Cardiac665 259 (24.0)64 154 (9.6)
 Atropine28 843 (1.0)0 (0)
 Bupivacaine and epinephrine70 588 (2.5)49 299 (69.8)
 Epinephrine87 471 (3.2)0 (0)
 Lidocaine463 803 (16.7)0 (0)
 Lidocaine and epinephrine80 844 (2.9)0 (0)
 Lidocaine and prilocaine31 431 (1.1)0 (0)
 Ropivacaine25 954 (0.9)15 520 (59.8)
Endocrine652 823 (23.5)0 (0)
 Dexamethasone453 142 (16.3)0 (0)
 Hydrocortisone36 121 (1.3)0 (0)
 Methylprednisolone58 120 (2.1)0 (0)
 Prednisolone127 383 (4.6)0 (0)
 Prednisone38 340 (1.4)0 (0)
Fluid, electrolyte, nutrition, and gastroenterology1 398 749 (50.4)164 517 (11.8)
 Calcium gluconate24 408 (0.9)0 (0)
 Docusate41 216 (1.5)5322 (12.9)
 Famotidine29 236 (1.1)0 (0)
 Furosemide49 828 (1.8)0 (0)
 Glycerin34 832 (1.3)23 630 (67.8)
 Glycopyrrolate143 812 (5.2)3479 (2.4)
 Lansoprazole42 270 (1.5)10 536 (24.9)
 Magnesium sulfate40 016 (1.4)0 (0)
 Metoclopramide29 910 (1.1)0 (0)
 Ondansetron817 265 (29.5)7583 (0.9)
 Pantoprazole27 668 (1.0)9400 (34.0)
 Phytonadione (vitamin K1)48 495 (1.8)0 (0)
 Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution99 461 (3.6)1720 (1.7)
 Potassium chloride71 281 (2.6)69 832 (98.0)
 Ranitidine101 162 (3.7)6498 (6.4)
 Sodium bicarbonate38 159 (1.4)0 (0)
 Sodium chloride727 576 (26.2)83 220 (11.4)
 Sodium phosphate and sodium biphosphate28 916 (1.0)2570 (8.9)
Hematology and/or oncology178 098 (6.4)2099 (1.2)
 Heparin167 190 (6.0)0 (0)
 Thrombin22 571 (0.8)2099 (9.3)
ID678 333 (24.5)11 705 (1.7)
 Amoxicillin63 138 (2.3)0 (0)
 Amoxicillin and clavulanate22 924 (0.8)0 (0)
 Ampicillin61 330 (2.2)0 (0)
 Azithromycin33 722 (1.2)2382 (7.1)
 Bacitracin90 389 (3.3)0 (0)
 Cefazolin186 461 (6.7)6942 (3.7)
 Cefotaxime30 116 (1.1)0 (0)
 Ceftriaxone119 479 (4.3)0 (0)
 Clindamycin85 267 (3.1)0 (0)
 Erythromycin49 823 (1.8)0 (0)
 Gentamicin46 660 (1.7)0 (0)
 Nystatin32 951 (1.2)0 (0)
 Ofloxacin34 498 (1.2)577 (1.7)
 Piperacillin and tazobactam35 007 (1.3)2750 (7.9)
 Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim37 494 (1.4)552 (1.5)
 Vancomycin58 677 (2.1)0 (0)