TABLE 1

Risk Factors Included in the Institutional Tool for Newborn Drug Testing

Maternal risk factors during pregnancy
 Mother tested for drug use during pregnancy
 Mother declined drug testing during pregnancy
 Unexplained positive drug screen result for mother during pregnancy
 Current or previous drug use, including maternal self-report
 Altered mental status suggestive of influence and/or withdrawal from drug(s)
 Physical signs suggestive of drug use
 Previous infant exposure to prenatal drug use
 Active alcohol use during current pregnancy
 Active tobacco use during current pregnancy
 Infection with hepatitis B and/or C, syphilis, or HIV
 No, late, and/or poor prenatal care
 Placental abruption
Social risk factors
 History of domestic violence by current partner
 History of child abuse, neglect, and/or previous child protective services involvement
 Current incarceration
Neonate risk factors
 Signs or symptoms consistent with neonatal withdrawal