TABLE 2

Characteristics of Newborns With In Utero Exposure to Opioids

CharacteristicBaseline Group (N = 81)Postintervention Group (N = 100)P
Demographics and birth characteristics
 Female sex, n (%)34 (42)52 (52).18
 Race, n (%).50
  White35 (44)35 (35)
  Hispanic43 (54)63 (63)
  Native American0 (0)1 (1)
  African American0 (0)0 (0)
  Other1 (1)1 (1)
 Gestational age, wk, mean (CI)38.9 (38.5–39.2)38.4 (38.1–38.7).04
 Birth weight, kg, mean (CI)2.89 (2.79–3.00)2.78 (2.69–2.87).11
Maternal history of drug use, n (%)
 Opioids.47
  No treatment program23 (28)25 (25)
  Methadone11 (14)9 (9)
  Subutex47 (58)66 (66)
 Alcohol4 (5)6 (6)1.0
 Benzodiazepine3 (4)8 (8).35
 Smoking3 (4)11 (11).09
 Multiple33 (41)42 (42).86
Feeding
 Feeding type, n (%).92
  Exclusive breast milk, maternal or donor26 (32)37 (37)
  Exclusive formula36 (44)41 (41)
  Combination of breast milk and formula18 (22)21 (21)
 Received donor breast milk, n (%)0 (0)10 (10).002
 Maximum wt loss, % of birth wt (CI)6.8 (5.8–7.9)8.1 (7.2–9.1).07
Hospital course
 Opioid treatment during admission, n (%)<.0001
  None56 (69)76 (76)
  Methadone25 (31)6 (6)
  Morphine0 (0)18 (18)
 Newborns receiving opioid treatment during admission
  Cumulative dose of opioid treatment (methadone equivalents), mg, mean (CI)6.6 (5.4–7.8)1.3 (0.1–2.7)<.0001
  LOS, d, mean (CI)18.7 (16.1–21.4)10.9 (8.2–13.7).0005
  Total direct costs, $, mean (CI)15 039 (12 182–17 897)11 936 (8309–15 563).18
 Readmission within 30 d, n (%)2 (2)3 (3)1.0
  • CI, confidence interval.