Types of Nonpharmacologic Therapy Provided

Which Nonpharmacologic Therapies Does Your Unit Use for Stabilization and Treatment of Infants With In Utero Opioid Exposure?NICUNon-ICU
No. Units (n = 48)Units, % (95% CI)No. Units (n = 14)Units, % (95% CI)
Rooming-in with mother2960 (46–73)964 (39–84)
Breastfeedinga4798 (89–100)1071 (45–88)
Swaddling4798 (89–100)1286 (60–96)
Cuddlersb3675 (61–85)643 (21–67)
Infant massage1021 (12–34)214 (4–40)
Positioning and comfort measures4288 (75–94)1179 (52–92)
Avoiding overstimulation4594 (83–98)1286 (60–96)
High-calorie nutrition, hypercaloric formula1940 (27–54)643 (21–67)
  • Units may have reported >1 type of nonpharmacologic care. There were 62 responding units in total. Seven sites indicated “other” and entered free text to describe other types of nonpharmacologic care, including elemental formula if no breast milk was available, ear muffs, dark rooms, single rooms, skin-to-skin contact, environmental control, high-calorie nutrition only if there is significant weight loss, and nonpharmacologic therapy as directed by physical and/or occupational therapy or child-life consultations.

  • a P < .05; Fisher’s exact test.

  • b P < .05; the χ2 test was used for comparison between the percentage of NICUs that responded affirmatively to each question and the percentage of non-ICUs that responded affirmatively to each question.