TABLE 2

Characteristics Associated With Negative and Positive TSE Classification Based on Cotinine Levels Among Hospitalized Pediatric Patients

ItemN (%)Negativea (N = 69)Positiveb (N = 102)Univariate AnalysisMultivariable Analysis
n (%)n (%)OR95% CIaORc95% CI
Age, y
 0–168 (39.8)16 (23.5)52 (76.5)5.63***2.41–13.146.02***2.53–14.31
 2–427 (15.8)9 (33.3)18 (66.7)3.47*1.25–9.633.65*1.27–10.51
 5–935 (20.5)18 (51.4)17 (48.6)1.640.65–4.101.600.63–4.09
 10–1741 (24.0)26 (63.4)15 (36.6)RefRefRefRef
Race
 White128 (74.9)54 (42.2)74 (57.8)RefRefRefRef
 African American32 (18.7)12 (37.5)20 (62.5)1.220.55–2.701.170.50–2.74
 Other11 (6.4)3 (27.3)8 (72.7)1.950.49–7.683.540.77–16.25
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic164 (96.5)66 (40.2)98 (59.8)RefRefRefRef
 Hispanic6 (3.5)3 (50.0)3 (50.0)0.670.13–3.440.500.09–2.84
Sex
 Male91 (53.2)37 (40.7)54 (59.3)0.970.53–1.800.960.49–1.90
 Female80 (46.8)32 (40.0)48 (60.0)RefRefRefRef
Insurance type
 Public or self-pay106 (62.0)23 (21.7)83 (78.3)8.74***4.31–17.718.33***3.83–18.12
 Private65 (38.0)46 (70.8)19 (29.2)RefRefRefRef
PMH of asthma
 No114 (66.7)43 (37.7)71 (62.3)RefRefRefRef
 Yes57 (33.3)26 (45.6)31 (54.4)0.720.38–1.381.240.56–2.75
PMH of bronchiolitis
 No132 (77.2)59 (44.7)73 (55.3)RefRefRefRef
 Yes39 (22.8)10 (25.6)29 (74.4)2.34*1.06–5.201.750.74–4.14
PMH of pneumonia
 No157 (91.8)62 (39.5)95 (60.5)RefRefRefRef
 Yes14 (8.2)7 (50.0)7 (50.0)0.650.22–1.951.130.35–3.71
Asthma diagnosis
 No141 (82.5)58 (41.1)83 (58.9)RefRefRefRef
 Yes30 (17.5)11 (36.7)19 (63.3)1.210.53–2.732.450.95–6.27
Bronchiolitis diagnosis
 No134 (78.4)62 (46.3)72 (53.7)RefRefRefRef
 Yes37 (21.6)7 (18.9)30 (81.1)3.69**1.52–8.991.940.62–6.07
Asthma or bronchiolitis diagnosisc
 No104 (60.8)51 (49.0)53 (51.0)RefRefRefRef
 Yes67 (39.2)18 (26.9)49 (73.1)2.62**1.35–5.082.22*1.08–4.57
Pneumonia diagnosis
 No143 (83.6)54 (37.8)89 (62.2)RefRefRefRef
 Yes28 (16.4)15 (53.6)13 (46.4)0.530.23–1.190.600.24–1.51
Total ED or UC visits
 066 (38.6)32 (48.5)34 (51.5)RefRefRefRef
 ≥1105 (61.4)37 (35.2)68 (64.8)1.730.92–3.241.230.62–2.44
ED visits
 080 (46.8)41 (51.2)39 (48.8)RefRefRefRef
 ≥191 (53.2)28 (30.8)63 (69.2)2.37**1.27–4.421.850.93–3.69
UC visits
 0122 (71.3)50 (41.0)72 (59.0)RefRefRefRef
 ≥149 (28.7)19 38.8)30 (61.2)1.100.56–2.160.860.41–1.83
Revisits in 30 d
 0139 (81.3)58 (41.7)81 (58.3)RefRefRefRef
 ≥132 (18.7)11 (34.4)21 (65.6)1.370.61–3.051.070.44–2.56
Hospitalizations
 0 visits142 (83.0)59 (41.5)83 (58.5)RefRefRefRef
 ≥1 visit29 (17.0)10 (34.5)19 (65.5)1.350.59–3.110.870.34–2.21
Inpatient LOS, d
 043 (25.1)17 (39.5)26 (60.5)RefRefRefRef
 ≥1128 (74.9)52 (40.6)76 (59.4)0.960.47–1.940.800.37–1.73
  • After adjustment for the covariates, patients with TSE using the >0.70 cut point were more likely to be 0- to 1-y-olds, have public or self-pay insurance, have an asthma diagnosis, have a respiratory-related diagnosis of asthma and/or bronchiolitis, have ≥1 ED visit, and have caregiver report of TSE. After adjustment for the covariates, patients with TSE using the >0.85 cut point were more likely to be 0- to 1-y-olds, have public or self-pay insurance, and have caregiver report of TSE. After adjustment for the covariates, patients with TSE using the >1.25 cut point were more likely to be 0- to 1-y-olds and 2- to 4-y-olds, have public or self-pay insurance, have an asthma diagnosis, and have caregiver report of TSE. aOR; adjusted odds ratio; LOS, length of stay; ref, referent.

  • a Negative classification = cotinine ≤1.0 ng/mL.

  • b Positive classification = cotinine >1.0 ng/mL.

  • c Adjusted logistic regression models controlling for age, race, and ethnicity.

  • *** P < .001; ** P < .01; * P < .05.