TABLE 3

Adjusted Associations Between 10-Unit Change in Caregiver-Reported Barriers and Hospital Outcomes

Barrier to CareHospital Outcomes
HRQLaLOSbReadmissionc
nβ Coefficient95% CInGLM Coefficient95% CInOR95% CI
System barrier1304−.34−1.02 to 0.3533901.03d1.02 to 1.0533901.05d1.01 to 1.10
Skill barrier1257−1.74d−2.67 to −0.8132731.04d1.02 to 1.0632731.010.96 to 1.06
Cultural distance1318−1.85−2.05 to 0.3533951.04d1.01 to 1.0633951.010.94 to 1.08
Marginalization barriers1259−.18−1.27 to 0.9132251.06d1.04 to 1.0932251.030.96 to 1.10
System distrust1280−.06−0.97 to 0.8432921.11d1.01 to 1.2232921.340.98 to 1.82
Expectation barriers1267.30−0.69 to 1.3032761.07d1.05 to 1.1032761.08d1.02 to 1.15
Knowledge barriers1300.46−0.60 to 1.5133621.07d1.04 to 1.0933621.07d1.01 to 1.14
Health care self-efficacy1247.62−0.88 to 2.1232161.12d1.04 to 1.2032161.110.88 to 1.39
Distrust of providers1245−1.64d−2.97 to −0.3216851.010.92 to 1.1116851.120.81 to 1.54
Lack of partnership1262−.65−1.74 to 0.4517130.990.80 to 1.2117131.140.53 to 2.45
  • Adjusted for age and medical complexity and clustered on patient. GLM, generalized linear model.

  • a HRQL physical functioning change score (range 0–100) modeled by using linear regression. Caregiver-proxy report was used for patients <13 y old. For patients ≥13 y old, self-report was used when available; otherwise, caregiver-proxy report was used.

  • b LOS winsorized at the 99th percentile and modeled by using a GLM with log-link and γ distribution.

  • c OR for 30-d unplanned readmission modeled by using logistic regression.

  • d Statistically significant result: P < .05.