TABLE 5

Prevalence of Trauma or ACEs

Trauma or ACEs (No. who declined to respond)Overall (N = 249)No Chronic Disease (n = 133)Noncomplex Chronic Disease (n = 44)Complex and Chronic Disease (n = 72)Pa
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Any ACEs reported (4)92 (38)38 (29)21 (48)33 (46).017
4 or more ACEs reported (4)22 (9)10 (8)5 (11)7 (10).70
 Parent or guardian divorced or separated (6)58 (24)21 (16)14 (32)23 (32).016
 Been involved with Child Protective Services (11)31 (13)15 (12)5 (12)11 (16).73
 Lived with anyone who had a problem with alcohol or drugs (7)27 (11)13 (10)7 (16)7 (10).54
 Lived with anyone who was mentally ill, suicidal, or severely depressed (6)25 (10)12 (9)7 (16)6 (8).39
 Parent or guardian served time in jail (5)20 (8)8 (6)6 (14)6 (8).30
 Was a victim of violence or witnesses violence in neighborhood (4)19 (8)6 (5)4 (9)9 (13).12
 Saw or heard parents or adults slap, kick, or punch one another (6)16 (7)5 (4)2 (5)9 (13).048
 Parent or guardian died (5)10 (4)3 (2)1 (2)6 (8).09
 Been involved in the juvenile justice system (6)10 (4)5 (4)2 (5)3 (4).98
 Treated or judged unfairly because of his or her race or ethnic group (4)8 (3)5 (4)0 (0)3 (4).40
  • a P value from χ2 test of association between medical complexity and potential risk factor.